EAST FORK NEHALEM
Tillamook Resource Area
Bureau of Land Management
4610 Third Street
Tillamook, Oregon 97141
Steve Bahe – Wildlife
John Caruso – Cultural
Bill Hatton – Forestry
Cliff Hawkins – Fisheries
Walt Kastner – Silviculture
Gregg Kirkpatrick – Recreation/Minerals
Bob McDonald – Soils/Hydrology/GIS
Andy Pampush – Team Leader/Editor
Larry Scofield – Botany
Lynn Trost – Rural Interface
Matt Walker – Fisheries
Dana Shuford, Area Manager
Tillamook Resource Area
The analysis portion of this project was done during the spring and summer of 1996. A first draft was completed in August of 1996 with this first iteration of the watershed analysis finalized in December 1996. This is a document that is still evolving and will be updated as new information becomes available. The data in this document was the best available at the time though in some cases little relevant data was available. Management opportunities in this watershed must be considered within the context of the checkerboard ownership pattern of BLM-administered lands. Cooperative programs with adjacent landowners are necessary to achieve optimum results in restoration opportunities for this watershed. Recommendations will receive consideration during deliberation over proposed management activities. No warranty is made as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of the data or maps contained herein.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EAST FORK NEHALEM WATERSHED ANALYSIS
WATER RESOURCES 2
MACRO VEGETATION 2
SPECIES AND HABITATS 3
FOREST RESOURCES 4
HUMAN USES 4
ISSUES AND KEY QUESTIONS 6
WATER RESOURCES 6
MACRO VEGETATION 6
SPECIES AND HABITATS 7
FOREST RESOURCES 8
HUMAN USES 9
CURRENT CONDITION 10
WATER RESOURCES 10
MACRO VEGETATION 12
SPECIES AND HABITATS 15
FOREST RESOURCES 30
HUMAN USES 32
REFERENCE CONDITION 35
WATER RESOURCES 35
MACRO VEGETATION 35
SPECIES AND HABITATS 36
FOREST RESOURCES 38
HUMAN USES 40
SYNTHESIS AND INTERPRETATION 42
WATER RESOURCES 42
MACRO VEGETATION 43
SPECIES AND HABITATS 44
FOREST RESOURCES 47
HUMAN USES 50
WATER RESOURCES 52
MACRO VEGETATION 53
SPECIES AND HABITATS 53
FOREST RESOURCES 56
HUMAN USES 58
Appendix A 60
Appendix B 61
Appendix C 62
Appendix D 71
Appendix E 72
Appendix F 77
Appendix G 79
Appendix H 79
LITERATURE CITED 80
LIST OF ACRONYMS 82
The East Fork Nehalem River watershed is a 20,543 acre watershed located in the upper reaches of the mainstem Nehalem river basin. The Nehalem river is a large coastal river that meanders 99 miles from its headwaters five miles west of the town of Timber, Oregon to its confluence with the Pacific ocean near the town of Wheeler, Oregon.
As with other upper Nehalem basin watersheds, the East Fork Nehalem River drainage is generally composed of broad benches with narrower ridges that are highly dissected by many draws and creeks. Slopes are generally short and steep. Little or no naturally occurring open, non-forested land occurs within the drainage. The open land that does exist tends to be associated with human habitations near the river. The watershed is forested mostly with conifers, and some hardwoods, of various age classes with most timber younger than 70 years. Elevations vary from 600 feet at the confluence with the mainstem of the Nehalem river to 2268 feet on Long Mountain at the southern edge of the watershed. There are several distinct subwatersheds (Elk creek, Jim-George creek, Kenusky creek, Dog creek, and the stream draining Gunners lakes) and many smaller unnamed subwatersheds within the drainage totaling approximately 218 miles of stream course. The average annual precipitation is approximately 60 inches and mainly falls as rain, though at times significant snowfall does occur. Soils are quite fertile, capable of supporting high vegetative production. On steeper slopes these soils are prone to mass wasting and, where disturbance has occurred, surface erosion.
Sixty eight percent of the watershed is owned by private industrial wood product companies, 22% is administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), with the remaining 10% of land being owned by private individuals, many of them managing their land for timber production. There are few residences within the watershed, and those that are there are generally near the river. The primary land use within the watershed is timber production, and has been for the better part of this century. Logging of these highly dissected lands has resulted in a vast access road network with an average density of about 4.5 miles per square mile of land. The industrial forest lands are managed almost exclusively for timber production, whereas the BLM lands are managed for multiple uses besides timber production, such as wildlife habitat, water quality, fisheries and recreation. The BLM lands within the watershed are generally distributed in an alternating section, checkerboard-like pattern and the private lands are more contiguously blocked. The Salem District Record of Decision and Resource Management Plan has allocated the BLM lands into four main categories; they are: General Forest Management Area (GFMA) (subcategory of Matrix) – managed primarily for timber production (29%), Late Successional Reserve – managed primarily for old forest habitats (4%), Connectivity/Diversity (subcategory of Matrix) – managed on longer forest rotations to provide some level of older forest diversity and to provide linkages over the landscape for the dispersal of those species requiring older forest habitats (14%), and Riparian Reserve – those lands adjacent to watercourses managed for water quality, fisheries and wildlife habitat (53%). The allocation of Riparian Reserve widths is determined by the presence or absence of fish within the stream.
The statements below help further characterize the East Fork Nehalem River watershed, and are pertinent to certain core topics that are critical to the analysis of this watershed.
- The dominant erosion processes in the watershed are mass wasting and surface erosion. Mass wasting processes are dominated by debris slides and debris flows, which occur mostly on steep hillslopes next to streams. Surface erosion occurs when mineral soil has been exposed through some type of disturbance, such as logging, road construction or land clearing.
Hydrology and Stream Channel
- Hydrologic characteristics important in the watershed are peak flows and minimum flows. Peak flows are the main channel-altering events, and the structural characteristics of the channel is a function of these events. Minimum flows are important for the effect they have on aquatic life and for the ability of the watershed to produce water for out-of-channel uses, such as irrigation and domestic use.
- Streams in the upper portion of the watershed are typically steep and narrow, and they transport sediment from its source in the forested uplands. Farther downstream, valleys are wider and stream gradients lower, and sediment transport reaches are intermixed with depositional reaches. The lower portions of the main tributaries and the mainstem of East Fork Nehalem River are low gradient, largely unconfined, and flow through fairly wide valley bottoms.
- Beneficial uses of water are for cold water fisheries, recreation, wildlife, domestic use, irrigation, industrial/manufacturing, and fish rearing. Water temperature, suspended sediment/turbidity levels, dissolved oxygen concentration, and bacterial levels are the water quality parameters that are important to these beneficial uses.
- Douglas-fir dominates the upper canopy layer on most forested sites. Some sites are dominated by red alder, particularly riparian areas, and bigleaf maple is common in localized areas. Western redcedar and western hemlock occur in many places. Grand fir and black cottonwood can be found occasionally.
- The understory is generally dominated by shrubs, the most abundant of which include vine maple, salal, and dwarf Oregon grape. Salmonberry and Indian plum are common riparian associates. Swordfern is the most common understory herb.
- Most of the merchantable-aged stands in the watershed are 50 to 70 years old, with the bulk of those occurring on federal lands. On private lands, most merchantable stands have been, or are in the process of being harvested. There are very few areas with stands more than 100 years old.
- The land ownership and timber harvesting patterns have combined to produce a highly fragmented landscape with most of the privately owned forest lands covered with Douglas-fir plantations less than about 10 years of age.
- In riparian areas, the higher-order stream buffers on private lands are generally quite narrow, usually consisting of a single row of red alder trees. Conifers are largely absent. Many of these buffers have been windthrown. Many first and second-order streams that run through young plantations are not buffered.
- Laminated root rot, caused by the tree-killing fungus Phellinus weirii, is widespread and has a major influence on the character of many Douglas-fir stands in the watershed. The fungus can create stand openings dominated by brush, hardwoods, and disease-resistant species such as western redcedar, as well as serve as a primary source of coarse woody debris and snags.
- Beavers are active in most drainages, cutting trees and building dams. This activity has created openings in the riparian stands.
SPECIES AND HABITATS
- The East Fork Nehalem River watershed falls within the range of four species listed under the Endangered Species Act and two species proposed for listing. They are the northern bald eagle (threatened species – very little habitat and no known nests within the analysis area), peregrine falcon (endangered species – little or no nesting habitat within the analysis area), northern spotted owl (threatened species – no known nest sites and very little habitat within the analysis area) marbled murrelet (threatened species – no known sites and very little or no habitat within the analysis area), coastal coho salmon (proposed species – poor habitat quality, though excellent potential) and coastal winter steelhead (proposed species – poor habitat quality, though excellent potential).
- The East Fork Nehalem River watershed falls within the range of many fish, wildlife and plant species covered by the BLM’s Special Status Species Policy. These include 41 Bureau Sensitive species (27 animal, 5 fish and 9 plant), 28 Assessment species (5 animal and 23 plant), and 48 Tracking species (10 animal, 2 fish and 36 plant). Some species covered by this policy include Cope’s giant salamander, pileated woodpecker, western brook lamprey, tall bugbane, and many-flowered sedge.
- Stream habitats within the East Fork Nehalem River watershed are, for the most part, degraded and simplified, being dominated by riffles and glides. They often lack deep pools, large wood and off-channel areas considered important elements of fish habitats. Part of the East Fork Nehalem River is less than 1 percent gradient, indicating a high potential for fish production.
- Forest habitats within the watershed are for the most part highly fragmented, young and lack complex features such as snags, coarse woody debris, and individual tree defect. These conditions result in abundant habitat for species that utilize early to mid-seral stage and/or edge forest habitats, such as northern alligator lizard, rufous hummingbird, black-tailed deer and redflowered current. Conversely, these conditions provide very little habitat for those species associated with later seral stage contiguous forest habitats such as the northern spotted owl, tailed frog, red tree vole, winter steelhead trout and many lichen species.
- Many noxious/exotic plants occur within the watershed. Scotch broom and Himalayan blackberry are quite common in young plantations and in some areas are difficult to control. Dense infestations of blackberries can potentially limit wildlife access to forage areas and reduce recreational use of land.
- Timber resources and recreation are the primary uses within the watershed.
- Forest management activities form the watershed’s employment base. Jobs associated with timber harvesting are slowly being displaced by occupations associated with young forest stand management as the merchantable timber resource is being converted to young stands.
- Many of those employed in the watershed reside in the town of Vernonia, which lies three miles west of the western edge of the watershed.
- The economic benefits generated from timber harvesting help maintain community economic stability in the short term.
- Some commercial gathering of special forest products such as alder puddle sticks and landscaping vegetation occurs within the watershed.
- Recreational activities within the watershed are primarily dispersed outdoor types of recreation. Hunting fishing and OHV (off-highway vehicle) use account for most of the activities. Other recreational activities occurring are family personal use gathering of special forest products such as mushrooms and firewood.
- No towns or hamlets exist within the watershed. People that live in the town of Vernonia or unincorporated areas such as Mist and Birkenfeld may travel through the watershed en route to the Portland area via the “Scappoose/Vernonia Highway”, the only major thoroughfare in the watershed.
- Most logging roads in the watershed are privately owned and controlled, and many are gated, thus limiting public access to a significant portion of the land base. Those roads controlled by the BLM are, for the most part, open to public access.
- The Bonneville Power Administration and the Western Oregon Electric Cooperative maintain a power line in the eastern portion of the watershed over both BLM and private lands.
- A natural gas pipeline accessing the Mist gas fields extends through the western portion of the watershed entirely on private land. The terminus of the pipeline is near Hillsboro, Oregon.
- Much of the public land within the watershed has been under lease for oil and gas exploration with gas being the resource of highest interest. There has been only minor exploration for gas within the watershed consisting of seismic evaluations. Bauxite (aluminum ore) leases were prevalent in the area in the past. There has been no mining activity for bauxite. There currently are no mining claims or mineral leases active on public lands within the watershed.
- Some human uses within the watershed may conflict. Limited access on private land reduces illegal refuse dumping but also reduces potential recreational opportunities, and may concentrate those activities on public lands. Some land management activities may conflict with residents’ quality of life values, such as clearcutting or slash burning.
ISSUES AND KEY QUESTIONS
Water Quality and Quantity
Water quality and quantity may not be sufficient to support the beneficial uses of water in the watershed.
- What and where are the beneficial uses of water in the watershed, and which of these are sensitive to activities occurring in the watershed?
- How are water quality, water quantity, and beneficial uses being impacted by management activities and what can be done to reduce the impacts?
- Are stream temperatures excessive for aquatic life and what can be done to reduce stream temperatures?
- What are the sources of fine sediments in the watershed and what are the effects of fine sediments on beneficial uses?
The primary functions of Riparian Reserves are to provide a mechanism for maintaining and/or restoring water quality, habitat for aquatic and terrestrial species and functional ecological linkages within and between watersheds. Much of the Riparian Reserve system is not functioning as intended by the Aquatic Conservation Strategy because of past and present human activities and natural disturbances.
Alternatives for the management of Riparian Reserves may include: 1) Adjusting Riparian Reserve widths for the entire watershed. 2) Maintaining the current interim Riparian Reserve widths as prescribed in the Northwest Forest Plan and identifying acceptable activities that could be conducted within them, and 3) Establishing new Riparian Reserve widths on a project by project basis using specific sets of considerations and criteria.
The BLM feels that, at this time, not enough is known about the specific biological functions of the streams within the watershed to confidently adjust the Riparian Reserve widths; either for the whole watershed or on a project by project basis. Consequently, this analysis will focus on those activities that could be conducted within the current Riparian Reserves and the following key questions have been developed to address the riparian management issue.
- What kinds of management practices could be implemented in the Riparian Reserves to enhance their function?
- What stand management options should be considered to enhance the habitat value of hardwood-dominated stands for fish and older forest-dependant wildlife species in Riparian Reserves and Late Successional Reserves?
- What stand management practices should be considered to enhance the habitat value of overstocked conifer stands for fish and older forest-dependent wildlife species in Riparian Reserves and Late Successional Reserves?
SPECIES AND HABITATS
Fisheries, Wildlife, and Plants
The viability or population health of some endemic special status fish, wildlife and plant species is of concern. These species include those listed or proposed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), Survey and Manage Species as identified in the Salem District Record of Decision and Resource Management Plan, and species identified under the Bureau’s Special Status Species Policy.
- What plant, fish and wildlife species are endemic to the watershed?
- Which endemic species are listed or proposed under the Endangered Species Act, identified in the Northwest Forest Plan as Survey and Manage Species, or have status under the Bureau’s Special Status Species Policy? What are their relative abundance and distribution?
- Are there any known sites within the watershed for those species listed under the ESA or identified as Survey and Manage Species?
- What are the condition, distribution and trend of habitats required by those species of concern that may occur in the watershed?
- What are the current distribution and density of snags and CWD within the watershed?
- What are the major factors leading to the decline in population or extirpation of species of concern?
- How does the ownership pattern within the watershed affect habitat management opportunities (and the potential habitat quality )?
- What management strategies or activities (including cooperative projects or partnerships with other landowners or agencies) will contribute to population health and/or facilitate the management and recovery of those species of concern?
Some species of introduced plants have naturalized and are competing with and excluding native plants and/or plant communities.
- Are native ecosystems losing biodiversity by the invasion of exotic plants?
- Are the invasion and spread of exotic plants affecting our ability to manage forests within the watersheds now and in the future?
- What control measures could be implemented to reduce the introduction and spread of exotic plants?
- What opportunities are available for partnerships in controlling the spread and introduction of exotic plants within the watershed?
Habitat value for fish and older forest dependent wildlife species is less than optimal on most of the acreage within Riparian Reserves and Late Successional Reserves. Hardwoods dominate most of the riparian stands, and uniform stands of conifers, or in some cases, hardwoods dominate much of the remaining area within these land use allocations. On many acres within the Matrix, wood production is far below its potential. Many acres that historically supported high-yielding stands of high-quality timber are currently dominated by hardwoods. Laminated root rot, caused by the fungus Phellinus weirii, is currently reducing conifer volume production on approximately 11% of the area. Tree growth has slowed greatly in some conifer stands in all land-use allocations due to overstocking.
- What stand management practices should be considered to enhance wood production and quality, and reduce losses from laminated root rot and other forest pathogens in the General Forest Management Area (GFMA)?
- What criteria should be considered in scheduling stands for regeneration harvest in the GFMA?
- What stand management practices should be considered in the management of hardwood-dominated stands in the GFMA?
Rural Interface and Forest Lands
Public values and opinions concerning land use vary widely. The management of BLM lands in the watershed may conflict with the values of some land users, residents’ and/or land management organizations.
The proximity of the watershed to the Portland metropolitan area and surrounding communities combined with very limited access to private forest lands due to the gating of roads, could result in heavy use of federal land in the area. The potential for heavy unregulated use of this area could cause severe resource damage and increased vandalism.
- With an increase of use of BLM managed lands, should we anticipate an increase in illegal refuse dumping and vandalism? How can this be countered?
- Is there a conflict between the public and BLM management practices, and what could be done to prevent possible conflicting situations?
- How should dispersed recreation opportunities on BLM lands be developed, managed or restricted?
Minerals and Natural Gas
The watershed contains potential natural gas developments and low quality bauxite deposits that are currently not being developed.
- What potential conflicts with other resource management could arise if commercial quantities of natural gas or bauxite are developed?
- Should any BLM lands within the watershed be withdrawn from mineral entry?
The East Fork Nehalem lies in a broad belt of thickly bedded sandstone and siltstone with a minor component of basalt. The landscape is composed of rolling hills with steep slopes leading down to valley bottoms and streams . The hills are generally stable and landslides are infrequent and are mostly slumps and slump-earthflows. Landslides, in the form of debris avalanches and debris flows, are common on steep, stream-adjacent slopes. These slopes are especially prone to landslides when the soil is disturbed by human activities such as logging and road construction. Surface erosion on compacted and otherwise disturbed surfaces, such as roads and OHV trails, is likely a major chronic source of sediment, given the high densities of roads and streams (4.5 and 6.8 mi./sq. mi., respectively) in the watershed. Streambank erosion is not likely an important source of sediment due to the very small amount of eroding banks identified in the 1993 habitat survey (0-7%).
There is no data available on the amount of sediment produced in the watershed. Given the high levels of fine sediments recorded in the stream survey, it is logical to assume that sediment delivery rates to the streams in the watershed are high at times. The heavy amount of timber harvesting that has occurred on private lands in the last decade suggests that harvesting and road construction have increased sediment yields in the watershed. With private harvest rates declining in the near future, and little or no increase in BLM timber harvest rates, erosion rates should be decreasing over the next 30-40 years, or until the next cycle of heavy timber harvesting begins.
Hydrology and Stream Channel
Lack of adequate streamflow to support aquatic life during low flow periods is an issue throughout the North Coast Basin. Decreased volume and depth of water during low flow periods increases the rate of solar heating, especially in areas with poor riparian canopy cover. The resulting high temperatures put stress on salmonids and may lead to increased mortality levels.
There are no gauged streams in the East Fork Nehalem, therefore low flows would have to be calculated from data obtained from the closest gauge on the mainstem Nehalem River, which is approximately 68 miles downstream. Because the calculated low flow values would have a great amount of error associated with them and would have little practical meaning, there will be no characterization of low flows in this analysis. An evaluation of stream channel and riparian vegetation conditions is more appropriate for evaluating the current condition of the East Fork Nehalem.
Stream channel conditions are obtained from the 1993 survey which covered the mainstem and the major tributaries, with the exception of Elk Creek. Overall, the survey showed a lack of large woody debris in the channel and a general lack of large conifers in the riparian zone for future large woody debris recruitment. The CWD index was low at 1.4 (on a scale of 1-5) for the main channel, and riparian vegetation was 76% hardwoods and 24% conifers, with all the conifers less than 35 in. DBH.
The channels were all constrained by either terraces or hillslopes, indicating that the channel is disconnected from it’s floodplains, and the channel geometry is that of a downcutting system. The gradient is low (0.6% overall) and dominated by glide and riffle types. Bank stability is good, with streambanks stabilized by vegetation. Undercut banks are common, and beaver activity/dams are common throughout the watershed. Sand was the most frequently occurring substrate, and the percentage of fines in the riffles was high (up to 80%), indicating that fine sediments are being delivered to the channel at a higher rate than the channel can transport them.
There is a known problem with the stream channel that is the outflow for Floeter Pond in section 21. This pond was created in the 1930’s by the Oregon Fish Commission for the purpose of raising fish, and is used now for recreational fishing. It has an earthen dam with no outlet structure, and over time an outlet channel has formed which has cut through the dam and created a new channel downstream for approximately 200 feet. There are concerns here for the erosion problem, for the safety of the dam and potential consequences if it were to fail, and for the water level in the pond which has been dropping as the outlet continues downcutting through the dam.
The major beneficial uses of water in the East Fork Nehalem River are for cold water fisheries, recreation, irrigation, and wildlife. There is also a limited use of water for domestic, industrial/manufacturing, and fish rearing purposes. The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Water Resources Division (WRD), lists eight active water right permits in the watershed; three for domestic use, two each for industrial/manufacturing and fish rearing, and one for irrigation. The water quality parameters that these beneficial uses are dependant on are water temperature, suspended sediment/turbidity levels, dissolved oxygen and bacterial levels.
The East Fork Nehalem River was not cited as “water quality limited” in the DEQ 1994 305(b) report on water quality. This is a rather small tributary to the Nehalem River, and probably is not considered by DEQ to be a major contributor to any water quality problems which exist downstream.
There is no known available water quality data for the East Fork Nehalem River with the exception of water temperature. Water temperature was identified by the BLM in 1993 as a potential problem because of the extensive clearcutting of riparian vegetation which was occurring on private industrial lands. Temperature data were collected by the BLM at a single site about 9.5 miles up from the mainstem Nehalem River through the summers of 1993 and 1994. This site is a 4th order stream in the upper, forested portion of the watershed. This data was intended to be used as a benchmark for analyzing the effects of BLM timber harvesting on water temperature. The data for July through September, which is the period of highest water temperature in a normal year, is summarized in Fig. 1.
Oregon State water quality standards for the North Coast Basin, which includes the East Fork Nehalem, allow for no increase in water temperature in salmonid producing waters due to human activity when water temperature is greater than 14.4C (58F). During July – September of 1993 there were 25 days when water temperatures exceeded 14.4C, and the maximum temperature during that time was 17.5C. During July of 1994 (no data for August or September) there were 21 days when 14.4C was exceeded, and the maximum temperature recorded was 17.7C. Considering the location of the temperature recording site, the lower gradient, meandering nature of the channel downstream, and the poor riparian vegetation cover downstream, it is probable that water temperatures are higher near the confluence with the mainstem Nehalem River.
Aquatic habitat surveys done in 1993 showed that there is a high percentage of fines (up to 80%) in the riffles throughout the watershed. This would indicate that suspended sediment/turbidity levels are high in the watershed. The high levels of timber harvest and high road densities (4.5 mi./sq. mi.) in the watershed are probably the major source of this sediment, but there is no data available to support this.
In summary, water quality in the East Fork Nehalem is mostly unknown, with the exception of water temperature. The available temperature data show that the basin standard of 14.4C is exceeded regularly during the summer months.
The watershed area is within the western hemlock zone described by Franklin and Dyrness (1973). Subclimax Douglas-fir dominates most stands in the watershed. Over time, and in the absence of major disturbance, the eventual climax community would be dominated by western hemlock along with western redcedar. Old-growth stands in this zone (400 to 600 years old) , however, still retain a major component of Douglas-fir. The composition and density of seral forest stands in this zone depend on the type of disturbance, available seed source, and environmental conditions. A common situation, which is the case in the watershed area, is the development of dense, even-aged stands of Douglas-fir. This pattern is encouraged by extensively planting this species following timber harvest and intensively managing competing vegetation in the young developing plantations.
Several plant associations similar to those described for the Siuslaw National Forest by Hemstrom and Logan (1986) are common in the watershed area. These include western hemlock/salal, western hemlock/vine maple-salal, western hemlock/swordfern, western hemlock/vine maple/swordfern, and western hemlock/dwarf Oregon grape-salal.
In the absence of stand-replacing disturbances such as catastrophic fire, windthrow, or timber harvesting, most forest stands in the watershed can generally be expected to progress through a series of stand conditions after they initiate, leading to the eventual culmination in the old-growth stand condition. These stand conditions are grass-forb, shrub, sapling/pole, small conifer, mature, and old-growth/mature. For a discussion of the various stand conditions see appendix A.
Stand condition in the watershed area by land owner is shown in Table 1. For the watershed as a whole, 95 percent of the stands are in the small conifer, sapling/pole, shrub, and grass-forb condition. The distribution on private lands parallels this, which is not surprising since 74 percent of the watershed is in private ownership. The majority (70 percent) of BLM’s ownership is in the small conifer condition. The mixed conifer/hardwood and hardwood conditions together comprise 18 percent. There are no acres in the old-growth/mature condition, and only one percent of the watershed is in the mature conifer condition. Most of the mature conifer forest is on BLM land. The trend on private lands seems to be to clearcut stands when they are still well within the small conifer condition. Therefore, stands will not progress beyond the small conifer condition on private lands if the present trend continues. All of the hardwood-dominated stands occur on BLM land.
Stand condition on BLM lands in the watershed inside and outside of Riparian Reserves is shown in Table 2. Just over half (52 percent) of the area on BLM lands is in Riparian Reserves. The distribution of stand conditions inside and outside of Riparian Reserves is very similar, except the percentage of acres in the hardwood stand condition is higher in the Reserves. The higher percentage of the hardwood condition in the Riparian Reserves is because most of the riparian areas are hardwood dominated. Nearly 80 percent of the small conifer stands inside of Riparian Reserves and almost 70 percent outside of Riparian Reserves are well stocked.
In general, Douglas-fir dominates the upper canopy layer on the majority of the non-riparian forested sites in the watershed. Some sites, however, are dominated by red alder, and bigleaf maple is common in localized areas. Western redcedar and western hemlock occur in many places, and occasionally, grand fir can be found. The understory is generally dominated by shrubs, the most abundant of which include vine maple, salal, and dwarf Oregon grape. Swordfern is the most common understory herb. Most of the stands on federal lands are 50 to 60 years old, and there are very few areas where stands are more than 100 years old. A major portion of the privately owned forest lands are in Douglas-fir plantations less than about 12 years of age. The land ownership and timber harvesting patterns have combined to produce a highly fragmented landscape.
Table 1. Stand condition by land owner in the East Fork Nehalem watershed analysis area.
|Hardwood & Mixed Conifer/Hardwood||mostly 1930-1950||
1Includes industrial private, other private, state, and municipal lands.
Table 2. Stand condition on BLM lands inside and outside of Riparian Reserves in the East Fork Nehalem watershed analysis area.
Inside Riparian Reserves
Outside Riparian Reserves
All BLM lands
|Hardwood & Mixed conifer/hardwood||mostly 1930-1950||
Laminated root rot, caused by the fungus Phellinus weirii, is widespread and has a major influence on the character of many Douglas-fir stands in the watershed. In some areas the disease manifests itself as major centers with many dead trees and concentrated patches of windthrown timber, ringed by unhealthy looking trees. In other cases infested stands are characterized by quite small, widely scattered patches of infected trees. The later scenario is often hard to recognize because there may only be scattered windthrown timber and trees may not look unhealthy. See appendix B for a discussion on Phellinus weirii. On-the-ground surveys indicate that approximately 11 percent of the area is infested with this disease.
Most riparian areas in the watershed are dominated by red alder. Occasionally, however, large conifers and bigleaf maple occur in mixture with alder. Most alder-dominated riparian stands are 50 to 60 years old. Dominant understory plants include salmonberry, vine maple, elderberry, and Indian plum.
The stream buffers on private lands are quite narrow (usually the width of one normal tree spacing), and consist predominantly of red alder. In general, large conifers do not occur in these buffers. Many of the buffers on private lands have also been windthrown. Throughout the watershed, beavers are active in most drainages, cutting trees and building dams. This activity has created openings in riparian stands.
SPECIES AND HABITATS
The management practices occurring on industrial timberlands in this watershed strongly influence the character of the landscape pattern. The portion of the state containing the East Fork Nehalem watershed is strongly dominated by early seral stage habitats which are primarily located on these intensively managed industrial forest lands. As a consequence of patches of younger, small conifers and larger aggregated clearcuts being distributed across the landscape, the area is permeated with high contrast edges and contains little interior mature forest habitat.
As a result of forest fragmentation and the general landscape pattern the ability of some species to disperse within the watershed or move across the larger landscape has been limited. Many forested riparian corridors have been harvested or reduced to thin strips of red alder, and the contiguous larger blocks of interior forest habitat fragmented or totally eliminated by clearcutting. For some species, especially those dependent upon later seral stage habitat such as the spotted owl, these factors and the resulting landscape pattern have resulted in dispersal problems and a high degree of regional isolation.
The special or rare habitats within an area (e.g. rocky outcrops, cliffs, wetlands, caves, meadows, etc.) will often support a unique assemblage of species. There is little information on special habitats within the watershed although there are known to be a variety of wetland habitats including seeps, springs, a number of small ponds (especially on private land), and Floeter and Gunners Lakes. These wetlands provide habitat for a diverse group of species including plants, invertebrates, amphibians, birds and small mammals. There are no known cliffs or ledges within the watershed with potential to function as nesting sites for species such as the peregrine falcon. Talus slopes and rocky outcrops do occur within the watershed and are commonly used by northern alligator lizards, Dunn’s and western redbacked salamanders.
In general, there is little habitat for those species dependent upon later-seral stage habitat including snags or CWD, large blocks of interior forested habitat or diverse, cool, shaded, riparian habitats within the watershed. Conversely, there is a great deal of habitat for those species which depend upon or utilize earlier seral stage habitats, smaller patches of mature forest and the juxtaposition of differing habitat types.
The East Fork of the Nehalem river watershed is located within the Coast Range Physiographic Province as identified in the Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) report and supports populations of plant, fish and wildlife species typical of the Northern Oregon Coast Range (see Fish and Wildlife Species List, appendix C). This analysis will focus primarily upon those wildlife, fish and plant species that are documented or reasonably likely to occur within the watershed and are of concern based upon their status as being (1) proposed or listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA); (2) Survey and Manage Species as identified in the Northwest Forest Plan; (3) covered by the BLM’s Special Status Species Policy and the current habitat condition is causing a concern for local viability; or (4) of cultural or economic Importance.
The East Fork Nehalem River watershed falls within the range of four wildlife species listed as threatened (FT) or endangered (FE) under the Endangered Species Act. They include the northern bald eagle (very little habitat and no known nests within the analysis area), northern spotted owl (no known nest sites and very little habitat within the analysis area) and marbled murrelet (no known sites and very little or no habitat within the analysis area). These species are discussed in further detail below. The peregrine falcon (FE) is considered a rare breeder in Oregon with the rocky coastline being the favored habitat in the northwestern part of the state. There are no known peregrine falcon sites or potential nesting ledges or cliffs within the watershed. It is considered to be a rare visitor to the watershed and will not receive further consideration in this analysis.
Survey and Manage (S&M) provisions apply to a group of species for which there is special concern of their regional viability. These species are identified in Table C-3 (as amended 12/94) of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Northwest Forest Plan. There are five S&M vertebrate wildlife and numerous invertebrate species potentially occurring within the watershed. The vertebrate species are the red tree vole and four species of bats. Currently there is little or no information available on these species within the watershed, and no known sites – see discussions below and appendix D. for standards and guidelines for Survey and Manage Species.
The watershed falls within the range of 42 wildlife species covered by the BLM’s Special Status Species Policy (6840 Manual) there are: 27 Bureau Sensitive (BS), 5 Assessment Species (AS) and 10 Tracking Species (TS). For the purposes of this watershed analysis, only those species documented or reasonably likely to occur within the watershed and whose availability of habitat is causing a special concern, will be addressed. This includes primarily three groups of species (1) species requiring older forest habitats including larger areas of interior forest; (2) species dependent upon snags, CWD or other older forest legacies; (3) species dependent upon stream or riparian habitats. The present condition within the watershed of those wildlife species of concern and/or their habitats are discussed beginning on page 20.
The coastal coho salmon and coastal winter steelhead occur within the East Fork Nehalem River watershed and are proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Although salmonid habitat quality is currently in poor condition, there is excellent potential for improvement within the watershed. In addition, there are seven fish stocks with Bureau status within the watershed (5 Bureau Sensitive and 2 Bureau Tracking) they are the river lamprey, western brook lamprey, pacific lamprey, sea-run cutthroat trout, coastal chum salmon, coastal spring chinook salmon and coastal fall chinook salmon. See the discussion on each of these stocks beginning on page 26.
Although there are no ESA proposed or listed plant species known to occur within the watershed, there are many S&M plant species potentially occurring there (see Appendix E). Presently, two S&M fungi species are known to occur at two sites each in the watershed. Clavulina cristata, a branched coral fungi and Cantharellus cibarius, a chanterelle are both listed under categories 3 and 4 of the S&M strategies. Harvesting of chanterelles could have long term effects on distribution, frequency, reproduction, and productivity as well as genetic variability. For branched coral fungi, there is inadequate information on reproductive biology. Environmental factors surrounding the establishment of habitat requirements for these species are the goal of information gathering required in the Salem BLM Record of Decision and the NW Forest Plan.
Additionally, there are 68 plant species covered by the BLM’s Special Status Species Policy. Nine are listed as Bureau Sensitive, 23 as Assessment Species and 36 as Tracking Species (See appendix F). There are currently no known sites for any of these plant species. In general, botanical inventories have been very limited in the watershed resulting in very little information on Special Status Species within the area. For the purposes of this watershed analysis, it is important to know that the potential for these species exists in the watershed.
Late Successional Forest Habitat
In developing a conservation strategy for late-successional forest-associated species, the Northwest Forest Plan designated a network of Late-Successional Reserves (LSR’s) across the Pacific Northwest. This reserve network is designed to protect habitat for late-successional forest species where habitat conditions are relatively intact, and to promote the development of late-successional forest habitat conditions where such habitat is limited, and the associated plant and wildlife populations are low. Over the next 50 to 100 years, populations of late-successional forest species are expected to stabilize within the larger LSR blocks and eventually increase in response to improving habitat conditions. Populations of late-successional forest species outside of the reserves are expected to decrease over time and may eventually disappear.
The LSR blocks are distributed relatively uniformly throughout the region to allow for and facilitate dispersal across the landscape. The northern-most large LSR block in the Oregon Coast Range is located more than 40 miles south of the Columbia River or about 40 miles southwest of the East Fork Nehalem watershed (see Figure 2 – Regional Perspective Map). With approximately 80 miles to the southern-most LSR on the Olympic Peninsula, and the closest LSR in western Washington located in the southern Washington Cascades, approximately 40 miles to the east, the LSR network does not provide for reestablishment of a connection between late-successional habitat in the Oregon Coast Range and forests of southwestern Washington.
The Northwest Forest Plan provides some areas for development of late-successional forest habitat within the watershed. Though older forests are largely absent in the watershed today, there are scattered parcels of connectivity and LSR land allocations on BLM-administered lands, and Riparian Reserves are designated along all streams. Currently the lands managed under the LSR land allocation are dominated by earlier seral stage habitats (see table 3.). While these areas will eventually develop late-successional forest habitat (barring unplanned events such as wildfire), the checkerboard nature of federal ownership in the watershed (and the larger Columbia Planning Unit) makes it very unlikely that large blocks of late-successional forest habitat would develop even in the long term. The present ownership pattern and federal land allocations will most likely continue to maintain a landscape pattern characterized by earlier seral stage habitats and a high degree of forest fragmentation. Only approximately 13% of the watershed is managed under the federal LSR or Riparian Reserve land allocations. Within the larger BLM Columbia Planning Unit, the federal lands managed under the LSR land allocation are comprised of 7 parcels ranging in size from 80 to 640 acres, averaging approximately 280 acres, which are entirely surrounded by private land. All of these factors are expected to continue to limit the potential for habitat development for species requiring larger blocks of interior forest habitat, such as the spotted owl or Pacific fisher, or those with poor dispersal capabilities, such as the red tree vole.
|Table 3. Age Class Distribution within the LSR Land Allocation|
There are several habitat features often associated with late-successional and old-growth habitats including large green trees and snags, and CWD which as legacies can benefit a wide range of species when they remain on-site and persist into the next stand following a stand replacing event such as a wildfire or clearcut harvest. The presence of these features may determine the relative abundance, or whether or not certain species, many associated with more early-successional habitats, even utilize an area. These species include primary and secondary cavity nesting species such as hairy woodpecker, northern flicker, western bluebird, northern flying squirrel and several bat species which are only able to nest or roost within an area if suitable green trees or snags are present. Additionally, these large green trees, snags, and CWD within clearcuts or younger plantations may serve a wide range of species as nesting platforms, foraging or drumming substrates, lookout posts or perching habitat, hiding cover or thermally regulated micro-habitats.
Many of the past management practices observed on the majority of the recently harvested private lands within the watershed have eliminated or severely limited available habitat for species requiring large green trees, snags, or CWD. The shorter rotation periods (35 – 50 years) commonly practiced on private lands which may preclude the development of larger trees, and the general lack of public lands in the area, may lead to the eventual local extinction of some species requiring larger snags. While the current Oregon Forest Practice Rules require the retention of 2 wildlife trees greater than 11 inches DBH, and 2 down logs greater than 12 inches in diameter per acre, (50% of which may be hardwood) this may prove to be inadequate in the long term in maintaining viable populations of some species. As an example, the maintenance of hard snags across the landscape which are no greater than 20 inches DBH will reduce or possibly eliminate pileated woodpeckers from managed Douglas-fir stands (Brown 1985). In time, reduced local population levels of primary cavity nesters such as the pileated woodpecker, would negatively impact secondary cavity nesters such as flying squirrels and saw-whet owls.
Special Status Species – Upland Forest
Clouded Salamander (Aneides ferreus)(BS)
Clouded salamanders are a terrestrial amphibian that inhabit large decaying logs, stumps and snags. Although their presence has not been verified, it is very likely they occur within the watershed. Current management strategies on private lands involving short timber harvest rotations, could preclude the long-term maintenance and/or development of habitat for clouded salamanders on these lands. Management of federal lands within the watershed, given the Northwest Forest Plan’s land allocations (LSR, Riparian Reserve and Connectivity) and Standards and Guidelines (green tree, snag and CWD retention), should provide for the long-term maintenance and/or development of habitat for clouded salamanders on federal lands.
Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) (FT)
East Fork Nehalem River watershed lies within Marbled Murrelet Zone 2 as identified in the FEMAT report (USDA et al. 1993). Zone 2 is a band 39 to 45 miles from the ocean. With marbled murrelet critical habitat basically extending only 35 miles inland (Zone 1), there is no critical habitat within the watershed.
Based upon stand ages, approximately 2% (94 acres) of the BLM ownership within the watershed has potential to be suitable murrelet habitat. All of this habitat is located within a single section in the northeast portion of the watershed, in an area allocated as LSR. Much of this habitat was surveyed between 1991 and 1993 in conjunction with a proposed timber sale (Tunnel Vision). The surveys did not detect murrelet presence.
There is basically no suitable murrelet habitat on private land within the watershed. Longview
Fibre owns approximately 45 acres (T4N, R3W sec 30) stocked with trees which, based upon
stand age, have potential to be suitable murrelet habitat. Longview Fibre has indicated their plans are to begin harvesting in that section by approximately 1998 (Larry Hurley, personal communication 5/96).
The amount of annual rainfall within the watershed (60 inches) is considerably less than the amounts received in coastal areas , resulting in less moss accumulation (an important murrelet nesting substrate) and probably a decreased potential (or longer time necessary) for the development of future murrelet habitat. Management of federal lands managed under LSR, Riparian Reserve and Connectivity land allocations should favor the development of murrelet habitat on these acres. Intensive forest management on private lands will preclude the development of murrelet habitat.
There are no known, occupied or historical marbled murrelet sites within the watershed. Although the area could possibly have been occupied by murrelets historically, no current sites would be expected given the habitat condition and distance from the ocean. The northern portion of the Oregon Coast Range Province was identified as an area of concern for murrelets in the FEMAT report. The nearest known occupied site is approximately 23 miles west-northwest of the watershed (16 miles from the ocean). Murrelet presence has been detected 13 miles northwest of the watershed (26 miles from the ocean) but observed behavior did not indicate occupation at the site.
Northern Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) (FT)
There are no known eagle sites, and very little or no eagle roosting or nesting habitat within the watershed. This is a result of the watershed being strongly dominated by early seral stage habitats; less than 1% is older than 75 years (approximately 140 acres) and there is no old-growth. Although seasonal periods of foraging opportunities may exist within the watershed during the fall chinook runs, it is doubtful that the watershed could currently support a breeding pair of eagles.
Current management strategies on private lands involving short timber harvest rotations, could preclude the development of habitat for bald eagles on these lands. Management of federal lands within the watershed given the Northwest Forest Plan’s land allocations (LSR, Riparian Reserve and Connectivity) and Standards and Guidelines could provide for some long-term benefit to bald eagles. The long-term benefits to eagles resulting from federal management practices may include the improvement of foraging opportunities as salmonid stocks of concern improve or the development of roosting and nesting habitat on federal lands. The actual significance of these potential benefits is questionable given the small percentage of federal ownership within the watershed and larger landscape.
Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)(BS)
Goshawks, being associated with dense stands of mature timber, are extremely rare in the coast range and, though thought to be possible, have not been documented as breeding in the northern Coast range. Although it is doubtful the watershed contains any forested stands suitable for nesting, some areas may currently function as foraging habitat to migrating or dispersing birds. Current management strategies on private lands involving short timber harvest rotations, could preclude the development of habitat for goshawks on these lands. Management of federal lands within the watershed given the Northwest Forest Plan’s land allocations (LSR, Riparian Reserve and Connectivity) and Standards and Guidelines could provide for some long-term benefit to goshawks. These long-term benefits may include the improvement of foraging opportunities or the development of nesting habitat on federal lands.
Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) (FT)
The spotted owl population within the Oregon Coast Range Province is extremely low and in a significant decline (The Draft Recovery Plan For The Northern Spotted Owl – 1991). Designated as an Area of Concern for recovery of the spotted owl by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), this is especially true for the northern portion of the province where habitat is severely limited and poorly distributed. There is commonly a substantial distances between areas of suitable habitat, which may not be in a condition to facilitate dispersal. This general lack of suitable and dispersal habitat within the watershed (especially on private lands) results in localized isolation, which coupled with the larger regional isolation greatly reduces the prospect for owl recovery in the portion of the state containing the East Fork Nehalem watershed.
The East Fork Nehalem watershed contains no spotted owl designated critical habitat. In general the spotted owl habitat in and around the watershed is very poor; it is highly fragmented and uniformly young (there are only 124 acres of trees older than 80 years and none older than 105 years in the entire watershed). Additionally, large barriers to dispersal, (blocks of non-habitat less than 20 years old, and from 1 to 3 or more square miles in size) are not uncommon across the landscape.
A disproportionately large percentage of the available habitat within the watershed is on federal land; approximately 71% of the private land within the watershed is not spotted owl habitat compared to 10% on BLM (see table 4.).
Table 4. Estimated Acres of Spotted Owl Habitat within the East Fork Nehalem Watershed Based on Primary Ownership and Land Allocation
(% of Watershed)
LSR or Riparian Reserve
(0 – 40 yrs)
(41 – 60 yrs)
Suitable Habitat – foraging or roosting (61+ years)
* data current as of June 1995
Based upon stand ages, approximately 43% (8,800 acres) of the land within the watershed is in a condition to function as spotted owl dispersal habitat (greater than 40 years old). Approximately 47% of this habitat on BLM land. These acres of habitat represent approximately 90% (4,107 acres) of the BLM ownership within the watershed with approximately 58% of this federal habitat located within riparian reserves or LSRs.
Approximately 15% of the land within the watershed is suitable spotted owl habitat (foraging and roosting). The majority (73%) of this habitat is on BLM land. Virtually all of this suitable habitat is in the 60 year old age class and could be considered marginally suitable habitat at best. There is no nesting habitat within the watershed on any ownership.
There are no known, occupied or historical spotted owl sites within the watershed. The closest owl site is the North Cedar Creek historical owl site which is located approximately two miles to the east of the watershed. Discovered in 1978, owls have not been observed at this
site since 1980.
The majority (approximately 90%) of the suitable habitat within the East Fork Nehalem watershed was surveyed extensively for spotted owls from 1990 to 1994, in conjunction with BLM’s timber sale program. These surveys resulted in two spotted owl detections, the first spotted owls located in the watershed in a decade or more. A single female spotted owl was detected in the northern portion of the watershed in 1993, and a male was detected near the center of the watershed in 1994. Neither birds were relocated during follow-up visits which coupled with the habitat condition within the area may suggest they were transient or dispersing birds.
Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)(BS)
Pileated woodpeckers are dependent on some components of older forests such as large snags for drumming, roosting, nesting and foraging and a good supply of large coarse woody debris for foraging. These woodpeckers are often observed foraging in young stands or even clearcuts if large stumps, snags or CWD are present. Current management strategies on the majority of private lands involve shorter timber harvest rotations, which could preclude the maintenance or development of habitat for pileated woodpeckers on these lands. Management of federal lands within the watershed, given the Northwest Forest Plan’s land allocations (LSR, Riparian Reserve and Connectivity) and Standards and Guidelines (green tree, snag and CWD retention), should provide for some long-term benefit to pileated woodpeckers. These long-term benefits include the improvement of foraging and nesting habitat on federal lands.
Red Tree Vole (Arborimus longicaudus)(S&M)
The red tree vole is a category 2 species under the S&M strategy (survey prior to activities and manage known sites). Being nocturnal and spending most of its life in the canopy of large coniferous trees, it is a difficult species to study. Consequently, abundance, habitat associations and population ecology of the species is not well understood. They are strongly associated with older forests and being poor dispersers are very vulnerable to local extinctions resulting from habitat loss and fragmentation. They require larger blocks of contiguous habitat or corridors connecting areas of suitable habitat; in the Oregon Coast Range, the mean stand size used by tree voles is 475 acres (75-acre minimum) (Maser 1981; Huff, Holthausen and Aubry 1992). The red tree vole is a species which has been identified as significantly benefiting from the Northwest Forest Plan’s riparian reserve network to provide connectivity. (USDA, USDI 1994) Although they have been found in stands as young as 62 years old, it is thought, depending upon individual stand characteristics, that stands younger than 100 years old are unable to maintain viable populations (Carey 1991).
The East Fork Nehalem watershed is on the edge of the voles range; some sources show the watershed as being outside of their range (Carey 1991). Regardless, given the fragmented nature of the watershed and only 124 acres of trees older than 80 years and none older than 105 years, the red tree vole certainly is very rare within the watershed, if it hasn’t already been extirpated. The stands which have the highest potential of being occupied by red tree voles are located in a parcel managed under the LSR land allocation, in the northeast portion of the watershed.
Current management strategies on the majority of private lands within and adjacent to the watershed involve shorter timber harvest rotations. This will preclude the development of habitat for red tree voles on these lands. Management of federal lands within the watershed, given the Northwest Forest Plan’s land allocations (LSR, Riparian Reserve and Connectivity) and Standards and Guidelines, should provide for some long-term benefits to red tree voles. These benefits may include improved connectivity and the development or improvement habitat on federal lands. However, given the vole’s poor dispersal capability, the current ownership pattern and the high potential they are extirpated from much if not all of the East Fork Nehalem and surrounding watersheds, as suitable habitat develops natural recolonization of the watershed may be difficult for the species.
Survey and Manage Bats
One of the leading factors in the decline of worldwide bat populations is the destruction of roost
sites and hibernacula. Most bat species occurring in the Pacific Northwest roost, reproduce and hibernate in protected crevices which fall within a narrow range of temperature and moisture conditions. There is a strong concern that the loss of snags and decadent trees from the widespread conversion of old-growth forests to young, even-aged plantations, human disturbance and destruction of caves and mines, old wooden bridges and buildings have significantly reduced the availability of potential roost sites.
There are four “Survey and Manage” bat species which may occur within the East Fork Nehalem watershed. All four species are associated with coniferous forests and forage primarily over riparian zones, especially over streams and ponds in proximity to roosting habitat. There is little or no information concerning the population health or distribution of these species within the watershed, however, based upon the low abundance of suitable roosts they are expected to be present in low numbers or even absent from the watershed. All are category 2 species under the S&M strategy (survey prior to activities and manage known sites). To date, (May 1996) no surveys have been conducted within the watershed to determine the presence of Survey and Manage bats. There are no known sites within the watershed although there are a few specific areas which seem to have potential for occupancy. These include the Nehalem Divide Tunnel passing through the ridge separating the East Fork Nehalem and Scappoose Creek watersheds and a few patches of older forest.
Long-eared Myotis (Myotis evotis), Fringed Myotis (Myotis thysanodes) and Long-legged Myotis (Myotis volans)
These three S&M species potentially found in the East Fork Nehalem watershed are small nonmigratory, crevice-roosting bats with widespread distributions that use snags, decadent trees, buildings, bridges and caves for roosting and hibernating. All three are also identified as Bureau Sensitive (BS) under the Bureau’s Special Status Species Policy (two of which were former candidate species currently being managed as BS as per interim guidance).
Silver-haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)
The silver-haired bat is a relatively large, migratory, widely-distributed snag and decadent tree-roosting bat, although it may occasionally use buildings and caves for roosting.
Many late-successional and old-growth associated fungi benefit from biological legacies that persist in old-growth stands, including coarse woody debris, habitat structures, and host species (many “Survey and Manage” fungi). Mycorrhizal fungi require live hosts, including conifers and many other species of vascular plants, which in turn depend on the fungi for uptake of nutrients and water. Biological legacies are also important for saprophytic and parasitic species of fungi. Many species of fungi require the microclimate that is provided by old-growth stands. CWD is an important substrate for many fungi, mosses, and liverworts (i.e. S&M species). Conifer canopy epiphytes (lichens) require the retention of groups of standing trees to maintain suitable microclimates and for dispersal.
The extremely slow growth rates and long periods required for certain late-successional and old-growth associated lichens to colonize stands emphasizes the considerable importance to these species of existing older stands and older trees within younger stands. Many nitrogen-fixing lichens do not enter stands until the stand reaches 150-200 years of age.
In the East Fork Nehalem watershed elements of structurally diverse habitat are frequently missing due to the lack of coarse woody debris in the stream channel and floodplain. A lack of debris related habitat, especially pools, means almost a proportional lack in coho, cutthroat and steelhead abundance. In coastal streams, large wood pieces and accumulations of woody pieces play a vital role in maintaining channel complexity and fish populations. Large woody debris creates scour, recruits and maintains spawning gravel, creates rearing pools, provides shelter from high flows and increases overall channel complexity. Coarse woody debris on the floodplain provides shelter for young fish during flood flows and stores fine sediment and spawning gravel. Streams within the watershed are generally characterized by low to moderate gradients with an excess of fine sediments and a lack of course woody debris.
While coho salmon, steelhead and cutthroat trout vary in their seasonal habitat utilization, all
require structurally diverse channels for the maintenance of healthy populations. During high flow periods associated with winter and spring, juvenile coho salmon, steelhead and cutthroat trout depend on the low velocity habitats provided by pools and other debris related habitat. Adult salmon and trout also use pools and wood structure for shelter from predators and for resting. During low flow periods zero to one year old steelhead and cutthroat inhabit higher velocity areas associated with riffles, while coho continue to use pools. Two year and older steelhead and cutthroat generally prefer the deepest pool habitat.
Approximately 11% of the total stream habitat within the watershed has been surveyed, though that percentage represents the majority of the potential coho and steelhead habitat. Survey results are summarized below by subbasin.
The mainstem of the East Fork Nehalem River, with a 0.6% gradient over the 12.2 miles surveyed, has the potential to produce a sizable population of coho. The current characteristics which negatively impact this potential production include the lack of large woody debris, an abundance of fine substrates (sand, silt), the potential for elevated water temperature, and lack of pool habitat. Coarse woody debris is very low throughout the entire portion of the watershed which has been surveyed. Based upon the lack of CWD, the mainstem East Fork Nehalem ranks lowest in habitat quality of streams surveyed in the watershed.
Dog Creek, with approximately 11% of total stream miles surveyed, has an average gradient of 3.1% and ranks highest in fisheries habitat quality for streams in the drainage surveyed. Relatively high quantities of CWD suggest potentially good habitat although the current habitat quality is potentially limited due to high amounts of fine sediment.
Kenusky Creek has an average gradient of 1.4% for the first 2.5 miles then changes to a 4.6% gradient for the remaining 1.5 miles surveyed. Although it ranks slightly above the mainstem in habitat quality, all reaches show low pool quality, low pool abundance, and an abundance of fine sediment. Reach three, 2.5 miles up Kenusky Creek, has very low pool abundance or quality but possess high amounts of wood relative to other surveyed streams in the watershed. This suggests a high sediment load or other erosion related problems.
Elk Creek has an average gradient of 1.7% over the 3.59 miles of stream surveyed. The two habitat features that help describe this tributary are a high number of dammed and backwater pools (61.5% of total) and a silt/organic substrate over 64% of the surveyed habitat.
Jim George Creek has not been surveyed and no habitat information is available at this time.
Of the 218 total stream miles in the watershed, approximately thirty could potentially be used by coho at some time. Steelhead could potentially use an additional ten to fifteen miles of stream due to their greater ability to surmount barriers and their habitat preferences in the first year.
Special Status Species – Stream/Riparian
Coastal Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) (FP)
Coho populations are severely depressed throughout their range in Oregon and California. Factors believed to be limiting coho populations are adverse ocean conditions, poor over-winter survival, and to a lesser degree, poor spawning, incubating, and summer rearing conditions. Poor over-winter survival is linked to the lack of coarse woody debris in the stream channel and floodplain, which provides quiet water shelter during high flows. Unnaturally high sediment loads delivered from unstable hill slopes cover spawning gravels and smother incubating eggs and pre-emergent fry. Simplified channels, caused by the absence of CWD, lack deep pools important to rearing coho during summer and fall low flow periods.
Coho salmon have been verified in low numbers in the mainstem East Fork Nehalem, Dog creek and Kenusky creek and are believed to be present in other suitable habitat including Jim George and Elk Creeks.
The East Fork Nehalem Watershed compares with other coastal watersheds in its coho habitat characteristics except it contains a large percentage of low gradient habitat. This is unusual given its headwater orientation and suggests potential for excellent coho habitat supporting a large population.
Coastal Winter Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (FP)
Winter Steelhead occur throughout the East Fork Nehalem River watershed. Their population is depressed due to the factors discussed above.
Sea-run Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) (BS)
Sea-run cutthroat are present in the East Fork Nehalem River watershed. Interviews with local
residents indicate that this species is less abundant compared to previous years. Sea-run cutthroat are believed to be suppressed throughout their range in the lower 48 United States due to habitat degradation similar to that affecting other anadromous salmonids. Sea-run cutthroat are under Species Status Review by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).
Coastal Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) (BS)
Chum salmon are not present in the East Fork Nehalem watershed and probably did not occur historically. It is known they historically occurred downstream in the mainstem Nehalem River at the town of Vernonia, approximately 8 river miles from the watershed. The upper reach of their current distribution is now a considerable distance downstream from Vernonia. Coastal chum salmon are under Species Status Review by NMFS.
Coastal Spring Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) (BS)
Spring Chinook salmon are not known to currently occur in the East Fork Nehalem watershed but are present in the mainstem Nehalem River. Historic presence is not known, but the East Fork could have been utilized for spawning and rearing and possibly summer holding. Coastal stocks of spring chinook are depressed.
Coastal Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) (BS)
Fall chinook salmon are reported by local residents to occur in the East Fork although ODFW surveys have not verified this. Abundance and habitat utilization is poorly understood within this watershed. Coastal fall chinook populations are currently stable or increasing.
River Lamprey (Lampetra ayresi) (BT)
River lamprey may inhabit the East Fork Nehalem watersheds but their presence has not been
Western Brook Lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) (BT)
This species has been captured in population samples in the East Fork Nehalem River watershed.
Their life history and habitat needs are poorly understood. Nearly all specimens are found in low
velocity areas with fine sediment deposits.
Pacific Lamprey (Lampetra tridentatus) (BT)
Pacific lamprey may inhabit the watershed but their presence has not been verified. Pacific lamprey stocks are believed to be suppressed throughout their range south of Canada.
There are two species of amphibians which are of concern in the watershed – Cope’s giant salamanders and the red-legged frog. The watershed appears to be just outside of the range of the Columbia torrent salamander and the tailed-frog although verification of this through surveys would be helpful.
Cope’s Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon copei)(BS)
Cope’s giant salamander is suspected to occur within the East Fork Nehalem River watershed. They are generally found within 1st to 3rd order streams containing clear, cold water, siltless, rocky substrates, CWD, and adjacent streamside forests. Past forest management practices involving the clearcut harvesting of riparian areas have negatively impacted the quality and quantity of Cope’s giant salamander habitat within the watershed. Very few records of metamorphosed adults exist, with most individuals breeding and spending their entire life in the aquatic larval stage.
Red-legged Frog (Rana aurora) (BS)
The Red-legged frog is known to occur within the East Fork Nehalem River watershed. They generally breed in marshes, small ponds and slow-moving backwater areas although during the non-breeding season they are highly terrestrial, commonly venturing into forested uplands. Past forest management practices which involved altering cool, moist riparian and forest floor habitats, such as clearcut harvesting of riparian and upland areas, have negatively impacted the quality and quantity of red-legged frog habitat within the watershed.
White-footed Vole (Phenacomys albipes)(BS)
The white-footed vole is an uncommon burrowing rodent that is not well understood. It is suspected to occur within the East Fork Nehalem River watershed. The available literature reports that these voles use a variety of habitats, but are most closely tied to riparian alder/small stream habitats, some suggesting a mature overstory in those riparian habitats. Past forest management practices involving the clearcut harvesting of riparian areas have greatly reduced the quantity of white-footed vole habitat within the watershed.
On BLM land within the watershed, riparian reserves provide significant protection to some plant species of concern (vascular plants listed under Bureau Manual 6840 that potentially could occur within the East Fork Nehalem River watershed). Table 5. is a list of species of concern potentially occurring in the watershed within the identified habitats. Botanical surveys conducted for these species have been very limited.
|Stream and Lake Borders||In Streams and Lakes/Ponds||Marshes and Wet Meadows|
|Filipendula occidentalis– BSCarex comosa– ASCarex livida– ASCarex pluriflora– ASCarex Retrorsa– ASCarex brevicaulis – TS
Carex macrocephala – TS
Carex macrochaeta – TS
Cyperus schweinitzii – TS
|Bolandra oregana– BSHowellia aquatilis– BSLycopodiella inundata– ASWolffia columbiana– ASBergia texana– TSElodea nuttallii – TS
Heteranthera dubia – TS
Najas guadalupensis – TS
|Carex comosa– ASEriophorum chamissonis– ASFritillaria camschateensis– ASJuncus kelloggii– TSScirpus cyperinus– TSVaccinium oxycoccus – TS|
Species of Cultural or Economic Importance
Hunting is a sport long enjoyed by both residents and visitors to the watershed. The primary big game species hunted within the watershed include Roosevelt elk, black-tailed deer, and black bear. ODFW has introduced wild turkeys into the Kenusky Creek area with the intention of expanding recreational opportunities for area hunters.
Roosevelt Elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti)
Like most of western Oregon, Roosevelt elk is an important game animal within the watershed. The East Fork Nehalem watershed is located within the Scappoose Elk Management Unit as defined in ODFWs Elk Management Plan. Although the unit supports a healthy elk population, ODFW believes the elk population size within the Scappoose Unit to be slightly below their management objectives (1994). Elk damage complaints are not common within the watershed relative to other areas of the Scappoose unit, especially where forest lands are interspersed with farmlands and the elk are attracted to the high quality forage provided by the farmland.
The abundance and distribution of Roosevelt elk within an area is generally dependent on the amount of forage and cover and their distribution in time and space. BLMs checkerboard land ownership pattern within the watershed benefits elk as the differences in management strategies between the BLM and private landowners commonly result in the juxtaposition of cover and open foraging areas. The high level of timber harvest on private land over the last decade has resulted in increased forage availability for elk, although in some areas the large expanses of clearcuts have eliminated needed cover. Currently 54% of the watershed is foraging habitat (0 – 20 years old). A landscape dominated by large aggregated clearcuts and little cover results in an uneven distribution of elk and increased potential for conflicts resulting from animal damage.
Chanterelle mushrooms (Cantharellus cibarius) are a Survey and Manage species regularly harvested commercially and by amateur collectors for food, although to date there have been no requests for permits to commercially harvest mushrooms on BLM land within the watershed. Commercial harvesting and environmental conditions clearly could impact whether chanterelles survive at present locations (dependent upon amounts harvested and the health of the habitat). The goals provided in the Salem District ROD (and NW Forest Plan) will improve knowledge of the species and also will determine what forest management actions do to their distributions, frequency, and abundance (productivity) as well as their biology and general ecology.
Noxious weeds are plants identified by the Oregon Dept. of Agriculture (ODA) as having the potential to cause economic losses without control. Scotch broom and tansy ragwort are the two major noxious weeds found in the watershed. Scotch broom is listed because of its ability to over run land and preclude economically beneficial uses of the land and tansy ragwort is listed due to its toxicity to livestock. Most but not all noxious weeds are exotic (non-native) plants. Himalayan blackberry, scotch broom and reed canarygrass are examples of exotic plants that are having an adverse impact in the East Fork Nehalem watershed. They are invading disturbed lands (clearcuts, roadsides and in the case of canarygrass, riparian areas) and without control can form a nearly monocultural landscape. Serious infestations can drastically reduce the variety of native plants (biodiversity), simplify wildlife habitat and preclude forest regeneration. Infestations in riparian areas are particularly troublesome since many sensitive plant habitats are associated with riparian areas and can be eliminated by the invasion of a few exotic plants. Additionally, many riparian associated exotic plants, can readily disperse downstream through the water stream, thus rapidly infesting new areas.
A recent survey of some of the BLM lands in Columbia county done by Oregon State University (OSU) students has found that by and large BLM lands do not have any serious infestations at this time, especially on those lands that have not been recently harvested. There is some blackberry and scotch broom in young plantations but they have been reasonably controlled by manual maintenance of the plantations. Many roadsides have tansy ragwort but the tansy is being kept at background levels by biological controls.
A discussion of forest stand condition within the watershed as it relates to forest management is included in the Macro Vegetation section above. The following discussion mainly pertains to the watersheds economic importance from a forest management standpoint.
During the past seven years there has been a downward trend in employment in the lumber and wood products industry in Columbia County, in which the East Fork Nehalem watershed lies. In 1989, there were 1,250 people working in the industry. In March 1995, there were 870 people employed and, as of March 1996, there were 660 people within the county employed in the lumber and wood products industry.
The May 1996 labor trends report from the Oregon Employment Department indicates that Region 1 (Clatsop, Columbia, and Tillamook Counties) expects to add fewer than 200 new positions over the next ten years in agriculture, forestry, and fishing jobs. The increased concern over environmental issues, coupled with the introduction of labor-saving technological substitutes and the decreasing availability of some raw resources, are factors responsible for limiting growth in this occupational category.
Columbia County ranks 16 of 36 in per capita personal income (1994). Employment associated with lumber, wood products and paper manufacturing tends to offer higher incomes compared to non-manufacturing jobs. However, since 1979, restructuring within the forest industry has resulted in the elimination or reduction in the number of high paying jobs generated by this industry sector. The wages associated with the industry and the volume of timber to be harvested from federal land in this watershed will not be a significant economic contribution to the county or region.
The timber harvesting trend in the watershed is toward increased mechanization. Feller bunchers, forwarders, and processors are more efficient and reduces employee exposure to hazards. Market conditions are playing an increasingly significant role when evaluating the feasibility of harvest systems.
Presently the BLM plans to harvest 3.206 MMBF in the General Forest Management Area (GFMA). The East Fork Nehalem watershed comprises about 30% of the total GFMA acres in the Tillamook R.A. Over time, the average annual harvest within the watershed would be approximately 968 MBF. This is an average and would not be expected to occur each year.
Special Forest Products
At the present time special forest products from BLM land in the watershed are probably being underutilized. During Fiscal Year 1995, only 25 permits were issued. Red alder firewood was the predominant use with salal collection and vine maple whips for archery being secondary permit products. Other items, such as puddle sticks (12 foot long red alder poles used in aluminum manufacturing), Christmas trees, seed cones and moss, plus a number of other products have the potential to be collected. Also, many products, such as Douglas-fir firewood, have been trespassed in unmeasurable quantities during the past and, unfortunately, this trend will likely continue into the future.
To predict trends of special forest products harvesting within the watershed is very speculative, other than some general tendencies, such as continued demand for firewood and Christmas trees. Other products, such as puddle sticks and floral greenery will be highly fluctuating, depending on the local market. In addition, there will probably be some other forest items, that up until now have had little or no human use, that will likely be in demand in the near future. An example of the latter is yew bark (the chemical taxol was extracted from the bark and used for cancer treatment) which was in high demand for only a short period of time during the early 1990’s until synthesized taxol was developed.
Rural Interface and Forest Lands
In the East Fork Nehalem watershed there is a moderate degree of conflict between public use and land management activities. Illegal dumping, firewood theft, OHV use and vandalism are the primary conflicting activities. Representatives from Cavenham and Longview Fibre feel that most of the illegal dumping occurs on lands south of the Scappoose – Vernonia highway where access from the paved road is easier than it is to their lands north of the highway.
Both Longview Fibre and Cavenham have a closed gate policy on their roads. South of the Scappoose – Vernonia highway, Cavenham has 80% of its roads closed, with a goal of closing 100% of its roads. On lands north of the Scappoose – Vernonia Highway the policies differ. Longview Fibre has gates on most of their roads, but do not necessarily have them closed at all times. Direct access to Longview lands within the watershed is more difficult than access to either BLM or Cavenham lands. Both companies open many of their roads during big game hunting seasons. The road closure policy results in reduced road maintenance costs. Most BLM roads linked to county roads are accessible to the public. For a list of BLM managed sections with public access see appendix G.
Although illegal dumping in the East Fork Nehalem is not as significant as in other watersheds, it is the primary reason private industrial landowners have closed roads to the public. The road closures have significantly decreased the problem though not eliminated it. Gates are often circumvented or the garbage is dumped at the gate. There are currently numerous dump locations within the watershed, some old and some new.
Security patrols conducted by the private industrial landowners have reduced incidence of illegal activities within the watershed. The BLM has law enforcement personnel that investigate illegal activities on federal lands and work in conjunction with local law enforcement agencies.
Occasionally the BLM conducts slash burning activities on recently harvested areas within the watershed to retard competing vegetation and reduce fire hazard. Rarely, industrial timber managers also conduct slash burns, but usually elect to use other site preparation methods such as windrowing and piling of slash and herbicide spraying. Oregon Dept.of Forestry’s Smoke Management division strictly regulates slash burning activities to control smoke intrusions into populated areas. The reduced emphasis on slash burning as a management tool has greatly reduced smoke intrusion complaints.
Scapponia Park is a 7.6 acre park on BLM land that is leased to Columbia County under the Recreation and Public Purposes Act (R&PPA). Adjacent residents have expressed concern over the parks management regarding families and groups residing in the park and public nuisance activities occurring in the park.
Recreational use within the watershed is primarily dispersed use such as hunting, fishing, OHV use and minor forest products gathering. Although the federal Lands are considered open to the use of OHV’s, some of the federal Lands do not have public access. Approximately 95% of the federal Land has public access. Currently all of the federal Land within the watershed is open to the use of OHV’s and are receiving increased use by motorcycles and 4×4 wheel vehicles. Areas receiving the most OHV use are powerline rights-of-way, natural surfaced roads, occasionally recent clear-cut areas generally on the fire trails and a few areas in timbered lands where trails have developed through use.
Much of the private land is closed to entry throughout most of the year. Occasionally some of the private lands are open during big game hunting season or during periods of low fire danger.
Scapponia Park is the only developed recreation site within the watershed. This park was constructed in the 1960’s by the BLM and, as previously mentioned, is now managed by Columbia County under a Recreation and Public Purpose Act lease.
Recreational use of the lands within the watershed are expected to increase as the general population increases in the vicinity. The lands within the watershed are not considered as destination recreation lands (out of area vacation use) and most use is by local citizens and the Portland metropolitan area.
Minerals and Natural Gas
Bauxite ore is the only mineral found in the watershed in potentially commercial quantities. The ore in this area is ferruginous bauxite (high iron content). The ore composition is approximately 34% Al2 O3 , 33% Fe, and less than 8% SiO2. The alumina content is low compared to most areas that are presently commercial (45-60% Al2 O3). The United States is highly dependent upon foreign bauxite sources and should these sources be interrupted the bauxite deposits within the watershed could be economically exploitable. Open-pit mining accounts for over 90% of the bauxite mining in the United States. It could be expected that this would be the method chosen for bauxite extraction within the watershed.
Natural gas has been commercially developed near the watershed. One well was drilled to approximately 12,000 feet in the northern part of the Scappoose Creek watershed (the next watershed east) but apparently failed to find a commercial quantity of gas. Currently there are no gas leases on Public Lands within the watershed. With commercial quantities of gas being found in the vicinity of the watershed, it is possible that future exploration may be initiated.
It is very doubtful that any new mining or drilling activities will occur in the watershed in the foreseeable future and consideration of the mineral issues and key questions will not be analyzed further in this iteration of the watershed analysis. For additional information concerning minerals, see the Unit Resource Analysis written for the Westside Salem Timber Management Plan (1983).
Current Native American claims and use of the East Fork Nehalem watershed is unknown. The two Oregon tribal governments (the Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde and Confederated Tribes of Siletz) that may have interest have been asked to investigate whether they have any traditional or historical use within the watershed.
Nearly all of the early homestead settlements and logging industry developments have been abandoned and are mostly in a state of disrepair, especially those on public lands. A few portions of some railroad trestles and main trunk lines remain. Most homesteads have little structural remains and are only evident by the presence of open and relatively flat grassy clearings, which usually contain fruit trees, shrubs, flowers or household discards. A past BLM policy of burning these cabins, to reduce fire hazard and unauthorized occupancy liability, destroyed many of the sites.
One noteworthy feature remaining from past railroad logging is the Nehalem Divide Railroad Tunnel. Begun in 1910 and completed in 1920, it is the only tunnel to cross the Coast Range divide. The tunnel is approximately 1,712 feet through and consists of a series of timbered arches connected by lagging to completely seal the roof and walls. While this is fairly typical construction for tunnels of this era it is the only one remaining in this general area. On August 17, 1981, the tunnel site was formally entered on the National Register of Historic Places.
Erosion processes prior to the time of human influence would have been similar to those occurring today, however the rate and timing of erosion would have been quite different. Landslide and surface erosion rates were influenced primarily by large storm and fire events, with erosion rates increasing dramatically immediately after those events and then falling off to relatively low levels until the next major disturbance.
Hydrology and Stream Channel
Stream channel characteristics would have been relatively stable prior to the time of human influence. Large inputs of coarse woody debris during large storms were relatively stable over time, and would likely have persisted through the periods between disturbances. Sediment would have been input and transmitted through the system in pulses corresponding to periods of high landslide rates. The routing of water and sediment through the watershed was controlled by the extent and condition of riparian vegetation, especially in the lower watershed where gradients are lower and the floodplain more developed.
The reduction in evapotranspiration rates following stand replacement fires would have increased water quantity for 30 – 40 years. Low flows, in particular, would have increased, which would have benefitted aquatic life during the summer months.
Water quality prior to human intervention was predominately a function of the condition and extent of riparian vegetation. Water quality characteristics would have varied widely across the landscape and over time as a result of the extent of disturbance of the riparian zone. During periods of major disturbance of riparian vegetation from fire or windthrow, water temperatures were elevated and suspended sediment levels were high during storm events. In the periods between those major disturbances, water quality was good in those areas with adequate riparian vegetation.
The watershed area is within the western hemlock zone described by Franklin and Dyrness (1973). Old-growth stands in this zone still retain a major component of the seral species, Douglas-fir. Based on work by Teensma et al. (1991), nearly 80 percent of the land area in the Oregon Coast Range north of Tillamook was essentially a continuous block of forest over 200 years old interspersed with a few areas of 100- to 200-year-old forest and a very small amount of recently burned area in 1850. The entire watershed supported stands over 200 years old as late as 1920. According to Oliver and Larson (1990), the general structural features of these transitional old-growth stands typically include large, live old trees; large, standing dead trees; variation in tree species and sizes; large logs on the forest floor in various stages of decay; and multiple-layered canopies. These stands also have a great deal of horizontal and vertical diversity. These stands undoubtedly met the interim minimum standards for old-growth Douglas-fir described by Franklin et al. (1986) (See Appendix H. for definition).
Wildfire, wind, and disease appear to be the primary disturbance agents influencing the development of these stands. Wildfire is by far the most significant of these agents. Although fire frequency in the Coast Range has not been determined, it probably occurs at intervals ranging from 150 to 350 years or more and was associated with east wind events (Teensma et al. 1991). These rather infrequent fires, however, were high-intensity, catastrophic, stand-replacement events. It seems likely that human-caused fires dominated the pattern of fire occurrences in the Coast Range both before and after European settlement. Lightning was probably not a major cause of fires, especially since fire protection began in 1908.
Fire results in both the creation and loss of coarse woody debris from the system (Kauffman 1990). Large pulses of coarse woody debris have been noted following stand-replacement fire events (Spies et al. 1988). Following fire in an old-growth western hemlock-Douglas-fir forest, there was a 10-fold increase in snags. In addition, the total biomass of coarse woody debris increased from the 244 tons/acre in the old-growth stand to 565 tons/acre in the newly burned stand (Agee and Huff 1987).
Major wind events associated with winter storms may have also influenced the development of these stands. Windthrown trees add coarse woody debris to the forest floor, as well as creating various-sized canopy gaps that support species such as western hemlock and western redcedar. In addition, major windthrow events create conditions for population build-up of the Douglas-fir beetle. Subsequent tree killing by these beetles further adds to the snag and coarse woody debris component of these forests as well as creates addition canopy gaps.
Laminated root rot, caused by the fungus Phellinus weirii, is widespread and probably had an important influence on the structure of many stands in the watershed. P. weirii is a native root pathogen that readily attacks and kills Douglas-fir (Thies and Sturrock 1995). Tree killing creates gaps in the canopy where shrubs, hardwoods, or shade- and disease-tolerant conifer species occupy these various-sized openings. Tree killing also creates snags. In addition, infection predisposes trees to windthrow. Live infected trees are susceptible to attack and killing by bark beetles. This disease, therefore, is a major source of coarse woody debris and snags.
SPECIES AND HABITATS
Since the last ice age, terrestrial and stream habitats have followed a cyclic pattern characterized by major disturbances, primarily fires and windstorms in the uplands and floods in the riparian areas, followed by periods of forest regeneration, then by long periods of stable old forest conditions until another major disturbance occurred. It is important to note that though a landscape of possibly several hundred thousand acres may have been drastically altered by fire, other vast areas within the Coast Range Physiographic Province would have been in stable late seral forest condition for many hundreds of years. The cycle of destruction_regeneration_stable forest_destruction was the normal process until human settlement and subsequent commercial logging began.
When European man began settling the watershed in the late 1800’s, the watershed was made up of large blocks of late seral stage forests comprised of a wide range of tree sizes, large amounts of CWD, and abundant large snags (see Macro vegetation section). This historic situation undoubtedly provided abundant habitat for those species dependent upon, or that utilized large blocks of interior old-growth forest habitat. Species which are presently of concern within the watershed such as the spotted owl, pileated woodpecker, red tree vole and fungi’s associated with large down wood certainly benefited from the historic habitat condition, as well as species no longer inhabiting the area including the gray wolf and Pacific fisher. Old-growth habitat conditions extended down into moist riparian areas and shaded the streams which often contained numerous pools as a result of many large logs and debris jams. Significantly higher populations of salmonids, including coho salmon, steelhead and chinook salmon, would have been expected as a result of the habitat conditions.
The contiguous nature of the historic landscape pattern facilitated the free movement of these species throughout the watershed and throughout the region. The riparian areas functioned as corridors for wildlife including amphibians, otters, elk, and cougars. For some species, such as the spotted owl, a significant connection probably existed between Oregon’s Cascade and Coast Ranges, and southwestern Washington with the species crossing the Willamette Valley and Columbia River.
Although there is little information available on historic fish, wildlife or plant population levels, analysis of current population trends indicate that populations tied to old forests undoubtedly fluctuated with various natural disturbance patterns and in the case of terrestrial species, crashed following major fires.
Depending on the level of disturbance, it appears that salmonid species may have shown some short term population increase response to disturbances that opened the canopy adjacent to streams and that caused the release of nutrients that were otherwise stored within organic material unavailable to fish. However, in some cases, these benefits may have been offset by a detrimental increase in sedimentation and water temperature. In any case, population increases tended to be short lived until overall habitat conditions improved.
The historic plant condition of the East Fork Nehalem watershed can be assumed to be one of a native ecosystem of plants locally adapted to the natural processes of the Coast Range Physiographic Province. Plant surveys in the watershed have been conducted only within the recent past (after most all of the watershed had been logged at least once) and have been very limited in scope. Some very rudimentary vegetation information can be obtained by reviewing land survey notes from the late 1800’s, but this information is not specific enough to draw any conclusions about the more sensitive species found in the watershed. The introduction, establishment, and spread of exotic (non-native) plants can be traced directly to the settlement and subsequent management of the watershed by European settlers. In some cases the history of the plant introductions are known in others they are not.
Beginning with settlement in 1877 in and around the East Fork Nehalem drainage, and the advent of large scale commercial logging in the early 1920’s, upland, riparian and stream habitats as well as the associated fish, wildlife and plant populations have been affected. The on-going man-made disturbance in the form of settlement, road and railroad construction and timber harvest continuing up to the present time has created an unnatural juxtaposition of early and mid-seral stage forest habitat where there is no longer any large blocks of old-growth interior forest or the habitat legacies (large down wood, snags etc.) that link forest habitats through time.
The first harvesting of timber in the Northwest was by aboriginals for canoes, canoe paddles, and hunting bows. Cedar trees were felled by using stone hatchets and sharpened mussel shells. The base of the trees were hacked and burned. Once the tree was undermined, the trunks fell to the ground. Scrapers made of stone and bone were used to hollow out the trunks. The interior of the logs were steamed with water and hot rocks to make the wood more flexible and to widen the beam to about eight feet. Some canoes were up to 70 feet long. Pacific yew was used to make canoe paddles and hunting bows.
Fire was used to maintain vegetation and associated wildlife that were desirable to the aboriginals. As a result, individual trees, or in some cases stands, were killed by fire.
With the California Gold Rush of 1848, commercial logging began in Oregon. Initially the timber cut by settlers in the watershed was for land clearing and milling for local structures. Ox-drawn wagons, big wheels and arches or horse teams were used to skid timber on gentle slopes 1 to 2 miles to streams. Logs were dumped along the banks of streams. When spring and fall freshets came, the water was high enough to float logs downstream to the mills. Splash dams were also built on some streams and used to transport the logs from the skid roads to mills.
With the introduction of steam powered Dolbeer Donkey engine in the 1882, the rate of timber harvesting increased on steeper terrain. The large scale timber harvesting did not occur in the watershed until after the invention of the geared shay and Willamette lokey railroad engines. By combining the donkey with the locomotive, the “gypsy” was created. The locomotive’s steam boiler could be applied to yarding logs from the stump to the rails. Steeper slopes were yarded using the donkey rigged to a spar tree.
In 1911, the first track-type tractor was developed. Lumber companies immediately began to use tractors to replace animals for logging on gentle slopes. In 1923 a hydraulic sheave was mounted on the rear of tractors which allowed them to line log off steep hillsides down to more favorable grades.
With the introduction of standard and narrow gauge rail lines areas several miles from mill sites were opened up for harvesting. In the Vernonia area two companies operated 39 miles of rail line from 1922 to 1957 to access timber. During this period, many of the older stands were harvested. The ‘second growth’ stands that are the predominate source of sawtimber within the watershed today are derived from the harvest practices that took place during the first half of this century.
Since rail systems require gentle gradients, several of the mainlines and spurs were built in the flats along the stream banks. When deep draws were encountered they were crossed with fills or trestles. Steep side ridges were normally throughcut. The Nehalem Divide tunnel was constructed to provide access between the Scappoose Creek and Nehalem River watersheds.
The era of railroad logging was referred to as the “highballing” period because of the vast acreage being harvested in a relatively short period of time. It is estimated that an average of 1 million board feet of timber passed through the Nehalem Divide tunnel each day during the 1920’s and 1930’s.
The steam engines were phased out with the invention of diesel powered trucks and yarding equipment. Without large volumes of logs available in small areas, it became too costly to push railroad tracks into the woods. The more maneuverable truck took over the spur line duties of the railroad. When Crown Zellerbach bought the Nehalem Timber and Logging Company in 1944, they began hauling by truck.
Employment within the watershed was closely tied to timber harvesting or milling. Until its closure, the mill in Vernonia (Oregon-American Lumber Company 1922-53, Long-Bell Lumber Company 1953-56, International Paper Company 1956-57), was the largest covered sawmill in the United States.
As the availability of sawtimber declined, so did the logging and milling. Today the employment within the watershed is largely manufacturing, farming and service jobs. In 1994, 15% of the population in Columbia County was employed in lumber and wood products or paper and allied products. Many residents in Vernonia do not work in the county. Instead, they commute to the Portland metropolitan area for employment.
Special Forest Products
Special Forest Products have contributed to the livelihood and recreation of local residents since the time of habitation by the earliest Native Americans. Various plants were used for eating and medical purposes, willow bark was used for baskets, reeds and coarse grasses were made into mats and cedar logs were made into canoes by Native Americans. Most of these uses were picked up by subsequent settlers. Over the years many of the Special Forest Product uses have changed. During the period of early logging and homestead settlement (1870 up to World War II), rails and poles for fencing, western red cedar for shake bolts, and firewood were the major products.
Rural Interface and Forest Lands
Until the mid 1980’s, the majority of private logging roads were open. Since then, private industrial landowners have experienced a substantial increase in fires started by the public, and in the amount of trash and garbage dumping on their lands. Other incidents, such as vandalism to logging equipment, poaching, and shooting have also increased. They’ve found there were more incidents of conflict situations on lands close to urban communities than lands proximate to rural populations. Due to the watershed’s proximity to Portland, private industry felt there was a need to close their lands to public access to reduce vandalism, liability, and cost. The practice of blocking roads with massive almost indestructible gates emerged. Gates were placed on their roads which intersected the Scappoose-Vernonia Highway. This kept most lands adjacent to the primary access into the watershed closed to the public, which effectively closed off the singularly owned south-eastern half of the watershed. However, on the northern-most land areas in the watershed, an “open” policy still applies, evidently because the Pittsburg Road, which accessed the watershed at its northern extremity is too far away to readily invite heavy use. More recently, private companies have added security personnel to their staffs and will press charges for trespass.
With the exception of a minor amount of dumping, the BLM has had few instances of rural interface conflict situations in this watershed.
People have been using the lands within the watershed for recreational purposes since the area was first settled. Early recreation was simple in nature as compared to the recreational activities today. Many forms of recreation today were subsistence or necessary activities of the past. Activities such as horseback riding, fishing, hunting, edible forest products gathering and other activities are examples of what was once a necessity that have gradually become today’s recreational activities. Complexity of recreational activities has also increased. Walking and horseback riding across the watershed has given way to motorcycles, all-terrain and four-wheel drive vehicles as a means of back country transportation. Shelter has moved from canvas tarps to tents, campers and luxurious motor homes. A segment of the population now prefers to camp in designated campgrounds and on lands other than public lands these may be the only places available for the public to camp on.
Minerals and Natural Gas
Much of the public land in the watershed had been leased for bauxite but these leases have all expired. Some shallow test pits dug several years ago may have been tied to minerals exploration.
In 1986, a natural gas well was drilled to approximately 12,000 feet on the divide between the eastern part of the Nehalem watershed and the northern part of the Scappoose watershed but apparently failed to find a commercial quantity of gas. Most all of the watershed has been seismically tested for oil and gas formations.
Very little information is available concerning the Native Americans of the Willamette Valley and Lower Columbia River. The Clatskanie Indians occupied just the mountainous region between the western edge of the Coast Range and the Lower Columbia River. Most of their staple food was obtained by hunting and gathering which is contrary to most of the other Native Americans of northwestern Oregon which subsisted primarily on fish. By the time of the first census in Oregon (1849), nearly all of the Native American population had been decimated by the small pox epidemic of 1780 or malaria in 1830.
Shortly following the homestead settlement of the Lower Columbia River area, the majority of the local Native American peoples (Clatskanie and Multnomah Tribes) were moved to other locations. Most of these people were relocated to either the Warm Springs or Yakima Indian Reservations.
With the major valleys being homesteaded by the initial wave of immigrants during the 1840’s and 1850’s, newcomers were forced to settle in the hills and dales surrounding these valleys. Given the topography, soil type, climate, and vegetation which combined to make a poor situation for agriculture and grazing, most of these homestead entries were canceled.
During the Great Depression a number of people illegally lived in abandoned homesteads or built new cabins on public land. Most of these sites were lived in for only a short time period. There are a few remnants of these sites found in the watershed.
Historically, settlement was generally centered around the development of logging and was dependent upon it. Some of the early communities in or near the watersheds (with founding dates in parentheses) were: St. Helens (1845), Scappoose (1872), Dixie Mt. (1887), Chapman (1901), Vernonia (1876), Bacona (1897) and Sherman Mill (1925) – also called Snooseville Corner (virtually abandoned now but employed around 150 people during the late 1920’s).
SYNTHESIS AND INTERPRETATION
The current condition for erosion processes varies from the reference condition in the rate and timing of erosion. Under reference conditions there were large increases in erosion rates associated with major disturbances such as fires and large storms, after which erosion rates dropped to relatively low levels. Removal of vegetation and compaction and displacement of soil from logging and road construction have created an increase in erosion rates that has been going on for a much longer time than under natural conditions. In addition, the type of material delivered to stream channels and riparian areas from landslides has changed. Landslides were a major source of large woody debris in historical times, when there were large areas of older timber in the watershed. With the younger timber that dominates the watershed today, there is little or no large wood input to the channels from landslides, and this is reflected in the lack of large wood and structure in the channel.
The key management plan objectives that are important to erosion processes are timber harvest expectations on matrix lands and the aquatic conservation strategy objective to maintain and restore the sediment regime under which aquatic ecosystems evolved. Timber harvest expectations can be achieved in the matrix lands without seriously impacting erosion processes with implementation of the Best Management Practices (BMPs) in the RMP that pertain to timber harvest and road restrictions on unstable slopes and similar practices. Restoration of the historic sediment regime in the watershed would require the cooperation of private land owners to protect riparian areas and steep slopes from logging impacts.
Hydrology and Stream Channel
The current condition is a result of timber harvest, road construction, stream cleaning and residential development activities. These activities have combined to result in a stream channel that is mostly devoid of structural elements and habitat complexity, and is disconnected from its floodplain. The lack of adequate large woody debris for structure will continue to be a problem over most of the watershed with the lack of large conifers on private lands for recruitment to the channel. There is no data available to show changes in hydrologic conditions from historic conditions, but it can be assumed that water withdrawals during the summer months have reduced streamflows during the low flow period well below what would have occurred historically. Timber harvest probably has not had a major effect on peak flows, low flows or water yield in the watershed.
The key management plan objectives that are important to hydrology and stream channel processes are timber harvest expectations on matrix lands and the aquatic conservation strategy objectives to maintain and restore the physical integrity of the aquatic system, to maintain and restore in-stream flows sufficient to sustain aquatic, riparian and wetland habitats and to retain patterns of sediment, nutrient, and wood routing, and to maintain and restore the timing, variability, and duration of floodplain inundation and water table elevation in meadows and wetlands. Timber harvest expectations can be achieved in the matrix lands without seriously impacting stream flow and hydrologic processes with management of riparian reserves on stream channels as prescribed by the Northwest Forest Plan to achieve aquatic conservation strategy objectives. Attainment of aquatic conservation strategy objectives in the watershed would require further cooperation of private land owners to protect riparian areas and stream channels from logging and road construction impacts.
The current condition of water quality is predominantly a result of timber harvest, road construction, land clearing and residential development activities. Timber harvest and road construction over the past 70 years have greatly increased sediment delivery to streams, and removal of large woody debris from channels and floodplains has disrupted the storage and movement of sediment throughout the watershed. Timber harvest, land clearing for agricultural purposes, and residential development have removed trees providing shade for streams, which has resulted in an increase in water temperature, particularly in the lower watershed where development has been highest. Under natural conditions there would be short periods of water temperature and sediment increases, however the current condition differs in that the system has been undergoing disturbance for a much longer time and has not been able to recover to a proper functioning condition.
The key management plan objectives that are important to water quality are timber harvest expectations on matrix lands and the aquatic conservation strategy objective to maintain and restore water quality necessary to support healthy riparian, aquatic, and wetland ecosystems.
Water quality can be restored in the watershed by adequately protecting and restoring riparian vegetation, by protecting steep slopes from disturbance from logging and other activities, and by restoration of stream structure and complexity through input of large woody debris into the channel and floodplains.
The most significant change in macro vegetation in the watershed has been the conversion of a landscape dominated by late-seral (mature/old-growth) conifer forests to younger (grass-forb, shrub, and small conifer) forests as a result of aggressive clearcut timber harvesting, which began in the early part of this century and continues to this day. Only one percent of the watershed is in a mature stand condition (95 acres BLM, 46 acres Longview Fibre) and there is no old-growth. These remaining older-aged stands are highly fragmented because of the scattered federal land ownership pattern and because of the relatively small harvest unit sizes. The trend on private lands is to harvest stands while they are still in the small conifer stage.
The proportion of the watershed dominated by red alder has increased in comparison to the reference conditions as a result of ground disturbance from timber harvesting and associated road building activities, as has the introduction and spread of noxious weeds. Historically, alder was generally restricted to areas along streams on lower slope positions. Alder currently dominates many upland areas where soils have been disturbed, and is very prevalent along roads. Alder aggressively competes with young conifers for growing space.
When alder stands become over-mature, usually by about age 70 to 80, mortality of large alders begins to create openings in the canopy. As the alder canopy disintegrates, the understory shrubs begin to grow more rapidly and may eventually occupy the site and exclude the regeneration of conifers as well as hardwoods. By age 100, the great majority of the alders have fallen out of the canopy. The resulting brushfields, which offer no potential for CWD recruitment, may persist indefinitely without some form of natural or human induced disturbance that could provide an opportunity for conifers or hardwoods to re-establish. The general lack of large conifer logs as seedbeds is also a detriment to conifer regeneration.
SPECIES AND HABITATS
The enormous change in macro vegetation over the last eighty years has ramifications upon many resource values including the alteration of the assemblage of species capable of being supported by the area. It represents a loss or total elimination of habitat for those species dependent upon large blocks of interior late-seral stage habitat, or diverse, cool, shaded riparian and stream habitats. Conversely, those species associated with younger-aged forests, or the juxtaposition of differing habitat types have greatly benefitted from the landscape pattern resulting from past land management activities.
All of the remaining mature forest on BLM land is in either Late Successional Reserves or Riparian Reserves. Longview Fibre has indicated that they intend to harvest their older timber within the next few years. As mentioned previously, the trend on private lands is to harvest stands while they are still in the small conifer stage, so it is doubtful that late-seral stands will once again dominate the watershed. In addition, current management practices, especially on private lands, often greatly reduce or eliminate the legacies (green trees, snags and CWD) from the previous stand, which in a natural stand-replacing event such as a wildfire, often survived into the next stand adding to its general character, structure, and habitat suitability for a wide range of species. In general, unless large green trees and snags receive special consideration, they will be eliminated from stands intensively managed for timber production.
In developing a conservation strategy for late-successional forest-associated species, the Northwest Forest Plan designated a network of Late-Successional Reserves (LSRs) across the Pacific Northwest. Over the next 50 to 100 years, populations of late-successional forest species are expected to stabilize and eventually increase within the larger LSR blocks. Populations of late-successional forest species outside of the reserves are expected to decrease over time and may eventually disappear. Although the Northwest Forest Plan provides some areas for development of late-successional forest habitat within the East Fork Nehalem watershed (riparian reserves, connectivity blocks and small parcels of LSR) the watershed is generally isolated from the larger LSR network. While these areas will eventually develop late-successional forest habitat (barring unplanned events such as wildfire) the checkerboard nature of federal ownership in the watershed (and the larger Columbia Planning Unit) makes it very unlikely that large blocks of late-successional forest habitat would develop even in the long term. The present ownership pattern and federal land allocations will most likely continue to maintain a landscape pattern characterized by earlier seral stage habitats and a high degree of forest fragmentation and limit the potential for habitat development for species requiring larger blocks of interior forest habitat.
This analysis has identified several wildlife species as species of concern. The majority of these species are associated with late-seral stage habitats.
As mentioned, it is doubtful that species with larger habitat requirements such as the spotted owl will ever again repopulate the region of the state containing the East Fork Nehalem watershed. Other species identified as species of concern such as survey and manage bats, marbled murrelet, northern bald eagle and northern goshawk may benefit from the long-term management of riparian reserves, connectivity and LSR blocks. Species with poor dispersal capabilities such as the red tree vole and clouded salamander may also benefit from the improvement of late seral habitats within the watershed. However, the isolated nature of these habitats may limit their ability to naturally recolonize and/or the long term viability of their populations.
It is expected that management of federal land in this region will need to provide the bulk of large snag habitat. The current Oregon Forest Practice Rules, which apply to private lands, require the retention of 2 wildlife trees greater than 11 inches DBH, and 2 down logs greater than 12 inches in diameter per acre, (50% of which may be hardwood). Current research indicates that these requirements may prove to be inadequate for the long term viability of species requiring large snags. As an example, the maintenance of hard snags across the landscape which are no greater than 20 inches DBH will reduce or possibly eliminate pileated woodpeckers from managed Douglas-fir stands (Brown 1985). In time, reduced local population levels of primary cavity nesters, specifically the pileated woodpecker, would negatively impact secondary cavity nesters such as, flying squirrels, and saw-whet owls.
Riparian habitat has been degraded as a result of timber harvesting. Large conifer trees and logs are important components of stream habitat quality and have been largely eliminated by past management practices. As a result, alder currently dominates many riparian areas. Unlike conifers, red alder is a relatively short-lived tree, seldom attaining an age of more than 100 years. Alder wood generally occurs as smaller pieces and is less durable in stream channels than the wood of many conifers. In addition, unlike some conifers which may readily function as suitable seedbeds for tree regeneration, alders rarely serve as nurse logs. However, alder does have many beneficial qualities, such as the ability to fix nitrogen, rapidly provide stream shade following disturbance, providing quick and annual cycling of nutrients from woody debris and leaves. Aging, decadent alders often provide a rich source of foraging substrates and nesting and denning sites for a wide range of wildlife species. The white-footed vole and many neo-tropical migratory birds use red alder riparian areas.
Bigleaf maple, a relatively long-lived hardwood tree, occurs throughout the watershed. Often an important component of riparian stands, its leaves provide a rich food source for terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and it is commonly used by wildlife. Black cottonwood is a native hardwood commonly used by a wide range of wildlife species including cavity nesters, beavers and bald eagles. Although it is less durable in stream channels than the wood of many conifers its rapid growth rate and potential for getting very large makes it a desirable riparian habitat component. It is present within the watershed although locally uncommon.
Many second-order and smaller streams on cut-over public and private lands are not buffered, and buffers on private lands on larger streams are narrow and usually do not contain large conifers. In addition, many of the stream buffers have blown down. Regardless of the cause of insufficiently buffered or unbuffered streams, the end results are very similar, the shaded, moist microhabitats, nutrient cycles and CWD recruitment potential are negatively altered.
Some special terrestrial habitats within the watershed require consideration to protect sensitive resource values when the potential for conflict with other uses or management needs arise. Although yet unsurveyed, the Nehalem Divide railroad tunnel is very likely used by bats. The tunnel has been identified as a potential safety hazard and impacts to bats should be factored into the possible solutions to the potential safety problem.
The coastal coho salmon and winter steelhead, with their status as species proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act, make up the major focus for habitat and water quality issues in the East Fork Nehalem watershed. Any improvements done for coho or steelhead would also benefit all other fish species as well. Although knowledge of fish distribution of the various species of anadromous and resident fish populations of river dwelling species is not complete, a close estimate can be made using habitat data available. In addition to fish, the aquatic habitats are inhabited by amphibians and invertebrates for at least part of their life cycle. Due to forest management practices of the recent past, the in-stream habitat condition of the watershed is poor overall with limited potential for improvement without active intervention. The quality and access to fish habitats in the watershed are affected by quality and volume of water, sediment delivery and the effect of timber harvest in the riparian zone (water temperature, loss of CWD and/or its potential for recruitment). Access to spawning and rearing habitat and factors that reach beyond the borders of this watershed, such as ocean conditions and harvest pressure, affect the potential for fish returning to the available habitat.
The most important fisheries concerns in the watershed is the application of specific management prescriptions to forests and their cumulative effects on the system. The silvicultural manipulation of Riparian Reserves to attain an environment that is approaching a later seral stage forest habitat is desirable from a fisheries perspective.
With the limited amount of public lands adjacent to major tributaries and the main stem of the river, activities beneficial to fish would likely hinge on the cooperation of adjacent land owners. From the data gathered, the most significant needs in the watershed include the recruitment or addition of CWD, limiting of sediment inputs to the system, high water temperature ameliorating features and an ongoing monitoring program to assess the system.
The checkerboard ownership pattern and differing management goals within the watershed make it difficult to have a coordinated program to promote and preserve native plant populations, and limit the spread of exotic plants and noxious weeds. The diversity of native plants on adjacent private timberlands, especially the industrial lands, is very often negatively impacted by the application of herbicides to control competing vegetation. Himalayan blackberry and scotch broom are two aggressive exotic plant species that are favored by soil disturbing activities, which include road building and timber harvesting. On industrial private lands, however, these plants are often controlled with herbicide applications as a part of their regular vegetation management programs. Herbicide application, however, often results in net loss of native plant diversity. Additionally, exotic plants tend to be more aggressive than natives and reinvade treated areas sooner than many native plants, therefore often requiring multiple herbicide treatments to be effective. Shrub species which are commonly greatly reduced include red elderberry, cascara, thimbleberry and salmonberry which have potential to impact the distribution or abundance of species such as band-tailed pigeon, swainson’s and varied thrushes and black-tailed deer.
With the bulk of the BLM-administered land forested with 40-70 year old trees, Himalayan blackberry and scotch broom are not as abundant on federal land as on private lands forested with considerably younger timber. The majority of the exotic plants and noxious weeds presently occurring on federal land are located along roadways and include thistle, tansy ragwort, fireweed, stinging nettle and some blackberry and scotch broom. Given the checkerboard ownership, BLM lands could easily become more infested with exotic plants and noxious weeds unless preventative management strategies are enlisted to curtail it. Should some of the more aggressive exotic plants or noxious weeds widely invade BLM land, their manual control would be expensive and in some cases cost prohibitive. Because of the unwanted side affects of herbicide use, they are little used on federal lands in western Oregon.
Eighteen percent of BLM lands are in the mixed conifer/hardwood or pure hardwood stand condition. As a group, these stands occur with nearly equal frequency inside and outside of Riparian Reserves. However, the percentage of the pure hardwood stands is nearly twice as high in Riparian Reserves. Most of these stands range in age from about 40 to 60 years old. Red alder is by far the most abundant hardwood. Many of these sites once supported conifers, but because of site disturbance during past timber harvesting activities and inadequate conifer reforestation, alder has become a dominant stand component. Some of these sites are capable of supporting conifers at this time. Others are best left in alder for a while to help relieve soil compaction and increase the site nitrogen level. Some sites, such as wet areas, are probably best left in alder and not intensively managed to restore full conifer stocking. Alder domination, of conifer-producing sites represents a potential loss of timber volume production. Over time, the difference in volume production between Douglas-fir and hardwood stands is expected to become increasingly larger. This is illustrated in Table 6, where the cubic-foot volumes for Douglas-fir and hardwood-dominated stands in the Columbia River master unit are compared. This watershed is included in the Columbia River master unit.
Table 6. Comparison of cubic-foot volumes for Douglas-fir and hardwood-dominated stands in the Columbia River master unit.
Stand age (years)
Percent of Douglas-fir stand volume
The proportion of the watershed dominated by red alder has increased in comparison to the reference conditions as a result of ground disturbance from timber harvesting and associated road building activities. Historically, alder was generally restricted to areas along streams on lower slope positions. Alder currently dominates many upland areas where soils have been disturbed, and is very prevalent along roads. Alder aggressively competes with young conifers for growing space. Spread of exotic plants and noxious weeds has also been encouraged, especially on private lands, by ground-disturbing activities associated with road building and timber harvesting.
As mentioned previously, about 80 percent of the small conifer stands in the Riparian Reserves are well stocked. Without density management (thinning), these stands will likely become overstocked and the progress toward late-seral conditions will be substantially delayed.
Subsoiling is often a recommended treatment for relieving compaction of forest soils, especially for skid roads used by ground-based yarding equipment to harvest commercial thinnings. Although treatment with a winged subsoiler is effective in relieving compaction, it can potentially result in negative impacts to the residual stand. Based on an on-going study in the Eugene BLM District, treating skid roads following harvest with a winged subsoiler caused extensive damage to the roots of trees along the roads. Even when the sensitivity of the subsoiler was set as high as possible, roots up to four inches in diameter were broken off. Root damage such as this represents an immediate negative impact to tree vigor and also provides entry points for decay-causing fungi. In addition, trees with reduced vigor are more susceptible to attack from pathogenic root disease fungi and/or bark beetles. Therefore, there is a trade-off between relieving soil compaction and residual tree damage.
Damage caused by Phellinus weirii root rot will likely be higher in most managed stands than in natural stands. Most of the harvested lands in the watershed have been reforested with Douglas-fir, which is readily infected and killed by this root disease. Once young Douglas-fir trees reach about 15 years of age, disease centers become apparent and root-to-root spread occurs from the original infection site. On-the-ground surveys in commercial-sized stands in this area have shown that Douglas-fir volume production in P. weirii root rot centers is less than half of that in healthy stand portions. Disease centers are believed to expand radially at the rate of about one foot per year (Nelson and Hartman 1975) and losses in diseased stands may double every 15 years (Nelson et al. 1981). It is generally not recommended to commercially thin in stands of highly susceptible species, such as Douglas-fir, when disease is present in 20 percent or more of the stand (Thies and Sturrock 1995). High levels of P. weirii infection (more than 25 percent of the area in disease centers) are of special concern when considering commercial thinning, especially if the disease centers are not well defined.
Levels of CWD are generally deficient throughout the watershed. When leaving fresh down Douglas-fir trees to increase the level of CWD, the potential impacts to the residual stand from the Douglas-fir beetle should be considered. In westside forests, when there are more than three windthrown Douglas-fir trees per acre greater than 12 inches DBH, infestation and mortality of standing live Douglas-fir trees can be expected (Hostetler and Ross, unplub.) For every two down Douglas-fir trees per acre greater than 12 inches DBH, beetles will likely attack one standing live Douglas-fir tree. Not all beetle attacks will result in tree killing, however. Tree vigor is an important factor determining whether a given tree can withstand beetle attack. Trees infected with root disease are especially at risk from beetle-related mortality. It is also important to note that the threat to the surrounding trees is much less when the down trees are exposed to direct sunlight as opposed to being shaded. Beetle attacks and subsequent brood production from exposed down trees are substantially lower than when the they are shaded.
Special Forest Products
Very little is known about the long term impacts that the harvest of some special forest products such as fungi and mosses, has on forest ecosystems. Many fungi’s are the primary food source for some rodent populations and in turn depend on those rodents to distribute their spores throughout the forest. Those rodents may in turn be the major prey species for higher order predators, such as spotted owls. Mosses and lichens are known to be important food sources for some animals and also serve as a moisture and temperature buffers. Mosses soak up considerable quantities of water during wet periods and slowly release it during dry periods, thus keeping forested areas cool and moist during hot, dry weather thus providing important habitat conditions for many species. Since the demand for special forest products fluctuates greatly, the potential exists for local moss and fungi communities to be negatively impacted by unregulated harvest.
With a decrease in timber harvest from federal lands within the watershed and the requirement to leave coarse woody debris in harvest units, the traditional supply of firewood following timber harvest has been greatly reduced. To meet the continuing demand for firewood from the local communities, species other than Douglas-fir and sources other than timber sale cull decks may have to be utilized.
Rural Interface and Forest Lands
The East Fork Nehalem watershed has few residences now and is not expected to increase in population in the foreseeable future. Though the population has increased in the rural communities to the east and the west of the watershed, as well as in Portland and vicinity, public use of the watershed for purposes other than forest management is not expected to increase significantly in the near term.
The amount of refuse dumping and other illegal activities has not increased significantly in the recent past on BLM lands even though most forest land access within the watershed is on public land. In the East Fork Nehalem watershed, flood damaged goods from “the Great Flood of ‘96″ were not dumped to the extent they were in the Scappoose creek watershed. Even though the major urban populations to the southeast have greatly increased, the watershed has not seen a significant rise in illegal activity when compared to watersheds in closer proximity to the metropolitan areas. This seems to indicate that accessibility is the key factor determining the extent of illegal activity.
Some land use activities that have caused conflict with local residents in the past, such as slash burning, target shooting, hunting and boisterous activity in Scapponia park are expected to continue at the current level or increase minimally.
Recreational activities have the potential to contribute to erosion which in turn may contribute to water quality concerns. OHV use in areas adjacent to or crossing water courses may contribute a significant amount of soil movement into the streams. Many unsurfaced roads used during winter months for 4×4 enthusiasts may also contribute to water quality concerns.
In addition to water quality concerns, recreationists could create disturbances to wildlife using habitats such as the potential bat habitat provided by the Nehalem divide tunnel.
Recreational activities very likely contribute to the introduction and spread of exotic/noxious weeds.
Minerals and Natural Gas
Because of the low quality and/or quantity of minerals, it is very doubtful that any new mining or drilling activities will occur in the watershed in the foreseeable future and consideration of the mineral issues and key questions will not be analyzed further in this iteration of the watershed analysis.
There have been no archeological surveys undertaken and no sites recorded within the watershed with the exception of the Nehalem Divide Railroad Tunnel. The chances of finding important historic properties within the Coast Range are very minimal due to the regions high vegetative productivity and abundant rainfall that cause unmaintained human developments to be rapidly reclaimed.
- Reduce existing soil compaction levels by obliterating roads that are not needed for future management and by treating old compacted areas such as dirt roads and cat trails with a winged subsoiler.
- Identify road-related sediment problems, such as old railroad grades with inadequate or failing water crossing structures and roads with failing sidecast. Evaluate the potential for sediment delivery from these sources to determine whether it is appropriate to fix the problems.
- Evaluate the stability of the Floeter Pond impoundment and the potential for resource damage and human safety if the dam should fail, and take appropriate action to reduce these potential problems.
Hydrology and Stream Channel
- To increase the amount and size of large woody debris in stream channels, floodplains, and riparian areas, the highest priority areas for enhancement projects are those streamside areas that are dominated by hardwoods or overstocked conifer stands that would benefit from thinning or underplanting.
- When doing enhancement projects in riparian reserves, avoid removal of vegetation along perennial streams that will decrease stream shading during the summer months.
- When logging inside riparian reserves, leave a no-cut vegetation buffer along all intermittent and perennial stream channels, lakes, ponds, and wetlands. The width of this buffer should be not less than 50 feet on intermittent streams and 100 feet on perennial streams and other waterbodies and wetlands, and should include stream-adjacent slopes with a high potential for landsliding. The purpose of this is to protect the streams and riparian zones from any direct or indirect disturbance from logging activities, and to ensure that existing shading is not reduced.
- When yarding through riparian reserves, yard away from or require full log suspension over all stream channels, lakes, ponds, and wetlands. Limit soil disturbance by prohibiting ground-based yarding systems, and require at least one-end suspension of logs within riparian reserves.
- Develop an avenue for monitoring water temperature in the lower watershed. Water temperature in the lower watershed is currently unknown.
- Recommendations for silvicultural treatments in alder-dominated riparian stands:
Release existing young conifers in riparian areas as the first priority for re-establishing large conifers in alder-dominated riparian areas.
- Where conifers are absent or are in very low abundance, consider clearing selected areas in existing alder canopies to plant and maintain young conifers. Openings should probably be 0.5-acre or less and should be well distributed along a given stream reach. Additional areas along the stream reach could be treated when the trees in the first sequence attain sufficient size, perhaps in 10 years or so. Target conifer stocking should be about 50 conifers per acre.
- Recommendations for density management thinning in Riparian Reserves:
Thin well-stocked and over-stocked mid-aged conifer stands in Riparian Reserves to encourage remaining conifers to attain larger sizes in a shorter amount of time than would occur through the natural “self-thinning” process. Variable-density thinnings could also be used to enhance structural complexity of relatively dense conifer stands.
- In young (non-commercial) conifer stands, maintain conifer stocking to within 10 feet of stream channels or other areas with water to encourage conifer domination of these sites.
- Recommendations to reduce the potential for excessive damage caused by the Douglas-fir beetle when managing for coarse woody debris:
Do not leave more than three fresh down Douglas-fir trees per acre greater than 12 inches DBH, especially where the down trees are shaded and where tree vigor of the remaining trees is reduced because of root disease or other causes. Where down trees are exposed to full sunlight, the number of trees left for CWD could probably be doubled without posing an undue risk to the surrounding trees.
- When there is a need to add large amounts of fresh down Douglas-fir trees or logs to increase the amount of CWD, add them in a series of events spaced three to four years apart.
- Fell Douglas-fir trees to create CWD no earlier than July and no later than the end of September to avoid beetle breeding and dispersal periods.
SPECIES AND HABITATS
- Retain late-successional patches (15% of the federal ownership) in landscapes where little remains – (ROD S&G C-44/45) Use LSR and Riparian Reserve land allocations to meet the 15% S&G once at least 684 acres within the watershed have obtained an age of at least 80 years.
- Maximize the current and future benefits derived from Riparian Reserves, LSRs and administratively withdrawn lands for cavity dwellers and other species dependent upon Late-seral stage habitat features. Evaluate LSR stands under 80 years old and Riparian Reserve acres and consider the application of silvicultural prescriptions to benefit the development of late-seral stage habitat. Potentially beneficial treatments include thinning to encourage rapid growth and enhance the development of late seral stage habitat, creating snags (eventual down woody debris), and underplanting with long lived coniferous species in areas where they are largely absent.
- Black cottonwood, a native, rapidly growing tree with the potential of getting very large is commonly used by a wide range of wildlife species including cavity nesters. Take advantage of opportunities to plant cottonwoods in suitable riparian areas, especially those in young plantations, as a method of increasing biodiversity, providing rapid shade, and providing future large trees and CWD.
- Retain quantities of CWD and wildlife trees in harvest areas commensurate with the availability of such habitat in adjacent areas. Retain higher levels of CWD and wildlife trees (e.g. 8-12 trees rather than 6-8) when adjacent sites are, or will be, deficient overtime. Retain lesser quantities (e.g. 6 trees) adjacent to areas where snags and CWD should be prevalent overtime (e.g. LSRs).
- Utilize logging systems and site preparation methods that would minimize disturbance to reserve trees, existing snags and CWD, especially when operating in Riparian Reserves.
- Survey and manage accordingly the habitat with the highest potential for occupancy of S&M wildlife species within the watershed (bats, voles, plants). These areas include the Nehalem Divide Railroad Tunnel, a few older stands of timber and unique habitats such as wet meadows, talus slopes and rock outcropings.
- If closure of the Nehalem Divide Railroad Tunnel is deemed necessary, consider using bat gates to exclude human entry while allowing for bat passage. Investigate cost-share funding for bat gates.
- When implementing silvicultural prescriptions in Riparian Reserves, utilize logging systems and site preparation methods that would minimize site disturbance, and maintain a “no-cut buffer” appropriate to site specific conditions along stream channels.
- Enhance the recreational hunting experience for some hunters and improve habitat for big game and other wildlife by closing roads where they are no longer needed for management.
- Depending upon site specific conditions, consider providing “visual buffers” adjacent to new clearcuts to limit disturbances to wildlife as well as help with limiting the spread of noxious weeds. Where feasible, maintain an uncut strip of dense native vegetation along roadsides which may include existing young conifers, salmonberry, thimbleberry or other native shrubs.
- Conduct a programmatic section 7 consultation with USFWS and NMFS that addresses the effects of the next several year’s timbersale program upon T&E species within the Columbia Mater Unit.
- Take an active role in fisheries information collection and cooperatively distribute information to other land or resource managers. Develop a system to conduct follow-up stream habitat inventories to assess habitat trends through time.
- During the planning stages of timber sales involving Riparian Reserves, consider integrating the use of on site equipment with in-stream habitat improvement projects. Reserve some trees for use as riparian and in-stream CWD.
- Consider the potential for the acquisition of land or permanent riparian protection easements in crucial riparian habitats. Identify incentives for private land owners to manage fisheries habitat. Strive to form cooperative fisheries enhancement projects across ownership boundaries that maximize habitat improvement.
- Participate in the Upper Nehalem Watershed Council as either technical advisor or group member.
- Based on current information from ODFW surveys, evaluate the following areas for potential stream habitat improvement projects:
East Fork Nehalem River mainstem – From Kenusky Creek upstream for three miles.
Kenusky Creek – From the confluence with the mainstem East Fork Nehalem upstream to SW1/4, SEC 33, T.5N., R.3W. W.M.
- During harvest operations adjacent to roads where invasive noxious/exotic weeds exist, leave a 15 foot wide undisturbed buffer of native shrubby vegetation.
- Clean heavy equipment that will be used in Riparian Reserves and LSR’s, and that will conduct soil disturbing activities, of soil and vegetation from outside sources.
- Educate staff and other personnel working in the watershed in the identification of noxious/exotic weeds and report new infestations to the Area Noxious Weed Coordinator.
- Develop and/or maintain noxious weed management agreements with other agencies and landowners in the watershed.
- Alder dominated sites:
Inventory alder-dominated stands to determine whether to convert particular alder-dominated sites to conifers.
- Those alder-dominated sites capable of supporting conifers at this time, and that are reaching their peak volume production, should be considered for harvesting and conversion to conifer stands to increase timber production in the GFMA. Consider including those alder areas currently suitable for harvest in timber sale plans for the GFMA.
- Alder-dominated sites with soil compaction and/or nitrogen deficiency problems are best left in alder until those problems are alleviated. Sites that are naturally suited to alder production, such as wet areas, are best left in alder and not intensively managed to attain full conifer stocking.
- Stands infested with Phellinus weirii:
Avoid commercially thinning stands of highly susceptible species, such as Douglas-fir, when disease levels are high (present in 20 percent or more of the stand). High levels of P. weirii infection are of increased concern when considering commercial thinning, if the disease centers are not well defined.
- In regeneration harvests, survey for and mark areas of infection which will be reforested with disease-resistant or disease-tolerant species.
- In disease centers, trees left for wildlife should be species other than Douglas-fir or grand fir if the intent is to have them remain standing.
- In sapling-sized stands of highly susceptible species during pre-commercial thinning, leave disease-resistant or disease-tolerant species in obvious disease centers in a two-tree spacing around the centers.
- In commercial thinning-sized stands of highly susceptible species where infection levels are under 20 percent and infection centers are well-defined (as opposed to dispersed), thin healthy portions of the stand and consider removing all highly susceptible species in the disease centers and within 50 feet of visibly infected trees. In the GFMA, regenerate the openings created with species that are immune to P. weirii. Red alder is the best choice for an immune species. In the other land-use allocations, regenerate these areas with disease-resistant or disease-tolerant conifer species to increase species diversity, begin the establishment of another canopy layer, and reduce the disease spread.
- Consider early regeneration harvest in Douglas-fir stands with disease levels exceeding 25 percent when the disease pattern is dispersed rather than occurring in distinct centers. These stands should be considered relatively high in priority for offering as tracts of timber for sale in the GFMA.
- Increase tree growth and value:
Precommercially thin young conifer stands in all land-use allocations.
- Prune about 100 trees per acre up to 18 feet after precommercial thinning once the average stand DBH reaches four to six inches. Prune the best trees in the stand and do not reduce the crown ratio below 50 percent, which may require pruning to be done in two stages to reach the desired 18-foot height. Pruning is appropriate in the GFMA land-use allocation only.
- Fertilize with nitrogen following pre-commercial and commercial thinning in the GFMA.
- Promptly reforest regeneration-harvested areas and aggressively manage competing vegetation.
- Relieving compaction a using a winged subsoiler:
Carefully evaluate the trade-off between relieving soil compaction and root damage to residual trees before recommending subsoiling in commercially thinned stands.
- General priorities for selecting stands for regeneration harvest in the GFMA
1. Douglas-fir stands where more than 25 percent of the area is in P. weirii disease centers.
2. Hardwood stands growing on conifer sites where soil compaction is no longer a threat to conifer growth.
3. Mixed hardwood-conifer stands growing on conifer sites where soil compaction is no longer a threat to conifer growth.
4. Overstocked conifer stands that are no longer suitable for commercial thinning.
5. Conifer stands that have reached or are beyond their peak volume production (culmination of mean annual increment).
- General criteria for selecting stands for commercial thinning in the GFMA
Douglas-fir stands that are 30 to 60 years old which have the following characteristics:
1. Curtis Relative Density levels ranging from 55 to about 70.
2. Live-crown ratios on residual trees of 30 percent or more.
3. Less than 20 percent of the stand is in P. weirii root rot centers, with the centers being well-defined (as opposed to dispersed).
Special Forest Products
- Develop firewood markets from non-merchantable red alder trees along roadways (if the cutting of these trees do not result in negative impacts to other forest resources, such as roadside buffers).
- Monitor special forest products harvest for adverse impacts to the resource, especially those products for which there is little knowledge of impacts from harvesting.
Rural Interface and Forest Lands
- Utilize the public to a greater degree during the scoping phase of the environmental assessment process for BLM projects. Increasing our sensitivity to the concerns and desires of the residents of the watershed may decrease conflict on rural interface issues. Participation in watershed councils would provide BLM managers additional information concerning activities occurring or planned within the watershed as well as keeping local publics apprised of BLM activities.
- Reduce vandalism, dumping and resource theft by increasing law enforcement presence either through cooperative agreements with local law enforcement agencies or BLM personnel along with aggressive prosecution of offenders. Public outreach and education programs should also be used to educate the public about the proper use of public lands.
- Post signs on roads indicating where entering and leaving public lands. At heavily used sites, information signs written to create pride in public ownership, recreational and permit information and asking public assistance in reporting infractions should be erected.
- Continue to manage for dispersed recreation opportunities such as hunting, fishing, hiking, horseback riding and mushroom and berry picking. These activities should be allowed to continue on all BLM lands where damage to resource values would be minimal. Because of the fragmented ownership pattern of the public lands, the development of OHV trails would be virtually impossible without the cooperation of the adjacent landowners. If a trail system is to be developed, the main thrust of the effort should come from user groups willing to negotiate cooperative agreements between the land owners or managers.
- Evaluate the Nehalem Divide Railroad Tunnel for permanent closure to reduce public safety liability. If survey information shows that the tunnel is being used by bats or is suitable for bat roosting or hibernacula, installation of gates allowing for bat passage but excluding human entry should be considered. Investigate cost-share funding for bat gates if necessary.
- Develop literature for the wise use of the public lands. This literature could provide useful information on what products are available from the public lands and procedures for obtaining a permit. The literature should make the public aware of how their activities impact the resources on forest landscapes and how they could reduce the impacts of their activities.
- Develop and maintain contacts with the Tribes of northwestern Oregon. Include consideration of Native American concerns during the scoping phase of the NEPA process for BLM projects.
- Investigate the cultural implications of the possible closure of the Nehalem Divide Railroad tunnel.
Forest Successional Stage Description
The first stand condition in the forest successional process is called grass-forb. This condition occurs after stand replacing fires or regeneration timber harvest and slash disposal. The quantity of vegetation on the area is relatively low. The area is dominated by herbaceous vegetation for the first year. Shrubs have typically not yet become dominant, but basal sprouts from a number of shrub species are evident. Although, in managed plantations these areas have been planted with conifer seedlings, the trees are typically too small to be apparent at this stage. This stand condition may last from 2 to 5 years. In harvested stands, the amount of coarse woody debris and snags is limited to unmerchantable material left after harvesting, which is in sharp contrast to the large quantity of coarse woody debris and snags following a major disturbance.
Stands next move into the shrub stand condition, which can last from 3 to 10 years. Shrubs and trees assume dominance. Tree cover is typically less than 30 percent. Red alder often dominates portions of stands if not controlled, especially where mineral soil was exposed during logging or other disturbances. Red alder is favored by exposed mineral soil and full sunlight (Harrington et al. 1994). Basal sprouts from bigleaf maple may also attain site dominance if not controlled. Both of these species readily overtop young conifers because their rapid rates of growth greatly exceed that of young conifers.
The sapling/pole stand condition begins at about stand age 15. When tree densities exceed about 500 trees per acre in the early portion of this stage, managed conifer stands are typically thinned to densities ranging from 200 to 300 trees per acre to promote rapid tree growth. Thinning at this time prolongs the understory shrub and herbaceous components in the stand, which otherwise would begin to decrease as the amount of light reaching the forest floor is reduced from shading by the overstory trees.
The small conifer stand condition is characterized by a closed canopy dominated by Douglas-fir in a single layer and sparse ground cover because little light reaches the forest floor. This stand condition can last from about age 35 to 75. As tree densities continue to increase, stands slowly begin to thin themselves, in a process called “self thinning” as slower-growing trees die from suppression. The majority of the snags developed and logs added to the forest floor, therefore, are small. Trees growing under these crowded conditions will eventually develop relatively slender boles and small crowns. These trees are vulnerable to damage from breakage and windthrow, especially if an adjacent stand is harvested. Thinning before the crowns on the trees have receded to less than about 30 percent of the bole length can greatly shorten the time the stand remains in this condition. Thinning also increases the windfirmness of the residual stand. Normally, many of the trees removed in thinnings are those which would have become the source of small snags and small logs. Thinning greatly promotes the development of understory vegetation.
In the mature stand condition, which usually begins at about age 75, the average diameter of the conifer trees, usually Douglas-fir, is 21 inches or larger. The overstory canopy has opened enough to allow some development of the understory. In intensively managed stands, tree diameters may approach those in some old-growth stands. But unless specifically managed for, the number of large snags and down logs these stands is comparatively low. Natural stands in this condition may have nearly as much standing and down wood as is found in an old-growth stand.
Stands in the old-growth/mature condition are characterized by large-diameter overstory Douglas-fir trees, dying live trees, snags, abundant coarse woody debris on the forest floor, replacement of Douglas-fir by shade-tolerant climax species such as western hemlock or western redcedar in canopy gaps. Stands often have multiple-layered canopies.
Because of various disturbances and lack of conifer regeneration, some stands may be partly or totally dominated by hardwoods. These stands are referred to a mixed conifer/hardwood or hardwood. Red alder is the typical dominant species in these stands, with Douglas-fir occurring as a minor component in many stands. Red alder is a relatively short-lived tree, seldom attaining an age of more than 100 years, and alder stands generally maturing at age 60 to 70 (Worthington et al. 1962). Alder stands usually have a dense shrub understory which often dominates these sites as the aging alder canopy begins to disintegrate. Douglas-fir cannot survive for extended periods under a dense alder canopy, so Douglas-fir seedlings persisting in these stands are rare. Shade-tolerant species such as western hemlock and western redcedar, however, can persist underneath the canopy (Harrington et al. 1994).
Phellinus weirii Discussion
Phellinus weirii readily infects and kills highly susceptible conifer species such as Douglas-fir and grand fir . Western hemlock is considered intermediately susceptible and western redcedar is thought to be resistant to the disease (Hadfield 1985). All hardwood species are immune. Tree-to-tree spread is through root contacts with infected trees or stumps (Hadfield et al. 1986). Affected trees are often windthrown when their decayed root systems are no longer able to provide adequate support (Thies 1984). Other trees often die standing. Bark beetles often attack and kill infected trees weakened by the disease. This disease , therefore, is a major source of coarse woody debris and snags.
P. weirii infection centers often appear as openings in the forest containing windthrown, standing dead, and live symptomatic trees, along with a relatively well-developed shrub layer (Hadfield 1985). Centers may also contain hardwoods and less-susceptible conifers. Disease centers range in size from less than one acre to several acres in size. Centers expand radially at the rate of about one foot per year . Douglas-fir timber productivity levels in P. weirii infection centers are generally less one-half of those in uninfected areas (Goheen and Goheen 1988). Timber losses in diseased stands may double every 15 years (Nelson et al. 1981). High levels of P. weirii infection (> 25 percent of the area infected) generally preclude commercial thinnings in Douglas-fir stands, especially if disease centers are not well defined.
SPECIES LIST FOR THE EAST FORK NEHALEM WATERSHED
The following list contains those fish and wildlife species that have potential or are known (1) to be current year-round or seasonal residents of the watershed, (2) to migrate through the area, (3) to be occasional or irregular visitors to the watershed, or (4) to have historically occupied the watershed. Those invertebrates listed include only the special status species believed to occur within or very near the watershed.
ABUNDANCE: TREND: ORIGIN:
C – Common S – Stable N – Native
U – Uncommon I – Increasing E – Exotic
R – Rare D – Decreasing
O – Occasional or Irregular X – Extirpated from the watershed
E – Endangered
T – Threatened
PE – Proposed Endangered
PT – Proposed Threatened
C1 – Sufficient information to support a proposal to list as Threatened or Endangered under the ESA.
C2 – Additional information needed to support a proposal to list as Threatened or Endangered under the ESA.
|STATE:E – EndangeredT – ThreatenedC – CriticalV – VulnerableP – Peripheral or Naturally Rare
U – Undetermined
X – Extirpated from Oregon
FL – Federally Listed
BS – Bureau Sensitive
BA – Bureau Assessment
BT – Bureau Tracking
|ONHP: (Oregon Natural Heritage Program)1 – Threatened with extinction or presumed to be extinct throughout entire range.2 – Threatened with extirpation of presumed to be extirpated from the state.3 – More information needed before status can be determined; may be Threatened or Endangered in Oregon or throughout their range.4 – Taxa which are of concern, but are not currently Threatened or Endangered.|
Appendix C. (Continued) – Fish and Wildlife Species List
CLASS COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME ABUNDANCE TREND ORIGIN FED STATE ONHP BLM
INSECT Fender’s Blue Butterfly Icaricia icarioides fenderi R D N C1 C 1 BS
INSECT Clatsop Philocascan Caddisfly Philocasca oron D N C2 BS
MOLLUSK Terrestrial Snail Cryptomastix devia N S&M
MOLLUSK Terrestrial Snail Magomphix hemphilli N S&M
MOLLUSK Terrestrial Slug Prophysaon coeruleum N S&M
MOLLUSK Terrestrial Slug Prophysaon dubium N S&M
FISH Coast Range Sculpin Cottus aleuticus N
FISH Prickly Sculpin Cottus asper N
FISH Riffle Sculpin Cottus gulosus N
FISH Western Brook Lamprey Lampetra richardsoni N U 4 BT
FISH Pacific Lamprey Lampetra tridentatus N
FISH Sea Run Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarki clarki N C 4 BT
FISH Coastal (resident) Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarki clarki C N C 3 BT
FISH Coho (Silver) Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch U D N PT C 1 BS
FISH Winter Steelhead Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss D N FP
FISH Fall Chinook (King) Salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha N C 4 BS
AMPHIBIAN Northwestern Salamander Ambystoma gracile C S N
AMPHIBIAN Long-toed Salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum C S N
AMPHIBIAN Clouded Salamander Aneides ferreus C N U BS
AMPHIBIAN Tailed Frog Ascaphus truei C D N V 3 BS
AMPHIBIAN Western Toad Bufo boreas C D N V 3
AMPHIBIAN Cope’s Giant Salamander Dicamptodon copei U N C 2 BS
AMPHIBIAN Pacific Giant Salamander Dicamptodon tenebrosus C S N
AMPHIBIAN Ensatina Ensatina eschscholtzii C S N
AMPHIBIAN Dunn’s Salamander Plethodon dunni C S N
AMPHIBIAN Western Redback Salamander Plethodon vehiculum C S N
AMPHIBIAN Pacific Treefrog Pseudacris regilla C S N
AMPHIBIAN Red-legged Frog Rana aurora C D N C2 U 4 BS
AMPHIBIAN Bullfrog Rana catesbeiana C S E
AMPHIBIAN Spotted Frog Rana pretiosa R D N C2 C 1 BS
AMPHIBIAN Rough-skinned Newt Taricha granulosa C S N
REPTILE Rubber Boa Charina bottae R N
REPTILE Painted Turtle Chrysemys picta D N C 3 BS
REPTILE Northwestern Pond Turtle Clemmys marmota marmota R D N C2 C 2 BS
REPTILE Racer Coluber constrictor U N
REPTILE Northern Alligator Lizard Elgaria coerulea C N
REPTILE Western Skink Eumeces skiltonianus R N
REPTILE Western Terrestrial Garter Snake Thamnophis elegans N
REPTILE Northwestern Garter Snake Thamnophis ordinoides C N
REPTILE Common Garter Snake Thamnophis sirtalis C N
BIRD-ANSE Wood Duck Aix sponsa U N
BIRD-ANSE American Wigeon Anas americana C N
BIRD-ANSE Northern Pintail Anas acuta C N
CLASS COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME ABUNDANCE TREND ORIGIN FED STATE ONHP BLM
BIRD-ANSE Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons U N
BIRD-ANSE Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata U N
BIRD-ANSE Green-winged Teal Anas crecca C N
BIRD-ANSE Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera U N
BIRD-ANSE Blue-winged Teal Anas discors R N
BIRD-ANSE Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope O E
BIRD-ANSE Mallard Anas platyrhynchos C N
BIRD-ANSE Gadwall Anas strepera U N
BIRD-ANSE Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis C N 4
BIRD-ANSE Redhead Aythya americana R N
BIRD-ANSE Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris C N 4 BT
BIRD-ANSE Greater Scaup Aythya marila C N
BIRD-ANSE Canvasback Aythya valisineria C N
BIRD-ANSE Canada Goose Branta canadensis C N
BIRD-ANSE Cackling Canada Goose Branta canadensis minima U 4 BT
BIRD-ANSE Dusky Canada Goose Branta canadensis occidentalis U N 4 BS
BIRD-ANSE Bufflehead Bucephala albeola C N P 2 BA
BIRD-ANSE Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula C N
BIRD-ANSE Barrow’s Goldeneye Bucephala islandica R N P 4 BA
BIRD-ANSE Snow Goose Chen caerulescens R N
BIRD-ANSE Ross’ Goose Chen rossii O N
BIRD-ANSE Trumpeter Swan Cygnus buccinator R N
BIRD-ANSE Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus C N
BIRD-ANSE Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus U N C2 P 2 BS
BIRD-ANSE Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus U N
BIRD-ANSE Common Merganser Mergus merganser C N
BIRD-ANSE Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator C N
BIRD-ANSE Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis C N
BIRD-APOD Black-chinned Hummingbird Archilochus alexandri N
BIRD-APOD Anna’s Hummingbird Calypte anna U N
BIRD-APOD Vaux’s Swift Chaetura vauxi C D N
BIRD-APOD Black Swift Cypeseloides niger R N P 3 BA
BIRD-APOD Rufous Hummingbird Selasphorus rufus C D N
BIRD-APOD Calliope Hummingbird Stellula calliope O D N
BIRD-CAPR Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor U S N
BIRD-CAPR Common Poorwill Phalaenoptilus nuttallii N
BIRD-CHAR Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia U N
BIRD-CHAR Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus marmoratus U N T C 1 FL
BIRD-CHAR Killdeer Charadrius vociferus C N
BIRD-CHAR Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago C N
BIRD-CHAR Herring Gull Larus argentatus U N
BIRD-CHAR California Gull Larus californicus C N
BIRD-CHAR Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis C N
BIRD-CHAR Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens C N
BIRD-CHAR Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus R N
BIRD-CHAR Western Gull Larus occidentalis C N
CLASS COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME ABUNDANCE TREND ORIGIN FED STATE ONHP BLM
BIRD-CHAR Bonaparte’s Gull Larus philadelphia C N
BIRD-CHAR Franklin’s Gull Larus pipixcan R N P 2 BA
BIRD-CHAR Mew Gull Larus canus C N
BIRD-CHAR Thayer’s Gull Larus thayeri U N
BIRD-CHAR Wilson’s Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor R N
BIRD-CHAR Caspian Tern Sterna caspia C N 4 BT
BIRD-CHAR Forster’s Tern Sterna forsteri R N 3 BT
BIRD-CICO Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias C N
BIRD-CICO American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus U N
BIRD-CICO Cattle Egret Bubulus ibis U E
BIRD-CICO Green Heron Butorides virescens U N
BIRD-CICO Great Egret Casmerodius albus U N U 4
BIRD-CICO Snowy Egret Egretta thula R N V 2
BIRD-CICO Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax U N
BIRD-COLU Band-tailed Pigeon Columba fasciata C D N
BIRD-COLU Rock Dove Columba livia U E
BIRD-COLU Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura U D N
BIRD-CORA Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon C D N
BIRD-CUCU Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus X N C 2 BS
BIRD-FALC Cooper’s Hawk Accipiter cooperii U S N
BIRD-FALC Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis R N C2 C 3 BS
BIRD-FALC Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus U S N
BIRD-FALC Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos R N
BIRD-FALC Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis C I N
BIRD-FALC Rough-legged Hawk Buteo lagopus U N
BIRD-FALC Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus U N
BIRD-FALC Swainson’s Hawk Buteo swainsoni R S N V 3 BS
BIRD-FALC Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura C D N
BIRD-FALC Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus C I N
BIRD-FALC White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus R N 3 BT
BIRD-FALC Merlin Falco columbarius U N BA
BIRD-FALC Praire Falcon Falco mexicanus N
BIRD-FALC Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus U N E E 1 FL
BIRD-FALC Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus
BIRD-FALC American Kestrel Falco sparverius U D N
BIRD-FALC California Condor Gymnogyps californianus X N E X 1 FL
BIRD-FALC Northern Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus U I N T T 1 FL
BIRD-FALC Osprey Pandion haliaetus U I N
BIRD-GALL Ruffed Grouse Bonasa umbellus C N
BIRD-GALL California Quail Callipepla californcia R N
BIRD-GALL Blue Grouse Dendragapus obscurus U N
BIRD-GALL Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopavo U I E
BIRD-GALL Mountain Quail Oreortyx pictus U N C2 4 BS
BIRD-GALL Ring-necked Pheasant Phasianus colchicus U E
BIRD-GAVI Common Loon Gavia immer C N 2 BA
BIRD-GRUI American Coot Fulica americana C N
CLASS COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME ABUNDANCE TREND ORIGIN FED STATE ONHP BLM
BIRD-GRUI Sora Porzana carolina U N
BIRD-GRUI Virginia Rail Rallus limicola U N
BIRD-PASS Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus C N
BIRD-PASS Tricolored Blackbird Agelaius tricolor N C2 P 2 BS
BIRD-PASS Sage Sparrow Amphispiza belli O N
BIRD-PASS American Pipit Anthus spinoletta C N 4 BT
BIRD-PASS Scrub Jay Aphelocoma coerulescens U N
BIRD-PASS Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum C S N
BIRD-PASS Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus O N
BIRD-PASS Cassin’s Finch Carpodacus cassinii N
BIRD-PASS Common Redpoll Carduelis flammea O N
BIRD-PASS Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus U S N
BIRD-PASS Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus U N
BIRD-PASS Lark Bunting Calamospiza melanocorys O N
BIRD-PASS Pine Siskin Carduelis pinus C N
BIRD-PASS Lesser Goldfinch Carduelis psaltria O N
BIRD-PASS House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus C N
BIRD-PASS Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus C N
BIRD-PASS American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis C D N
BIRD-PASS Swainson’s Thrush Catharus ustulatus C D N
BIRD-PASS Brown Creeper Certhia americana C N
BIRD-PASS Wrentit Chamaea fasciata C N
BIRD-PASS Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus O N
BIRD-PASS American Dipper Cinclus mexicanus C N
BIRD-PASS Marsh Wren Cistothorus palustris C S N
BIRD-PASS Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus borealis C D N
BIRD-PASS American Crow Corvus brachyryhnchos C N
BIRD-PASS Northwestern Crow Corvus caurinus R N
BIRD-PASS Common Raven Corvus corax C N
BIRD-PASS Western Wood-pewee Contopus sordidulus C D N
BIRD-PASS Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertina C N
BIRD-PASS Blue Jay Cyanocitta cristata O N
BIRD-PASS Steller’s Jay Cyanocitta stelleri C N
BIRD-PASS Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens O N
BIRD-PASS Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia O N
BIRD-PASS Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata C S N
BIRD-PASS Black-throated Gray Warbler Dendroica nigrescens C S N
BIRD-PASS Hermit Warbler Dendroica occidentalis U S N
BIRD-PASS Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum U N
BIRD-PASS Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia C S N
BIRD-PASS Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica O N
BIRD-PASS Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata O N
BIRD-PASS Townsend’s Warbler Dendroica townsendi U S N
BIRD-PASS Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus O S N V 4
BIRD-PASS Pacific-slope Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis C D N
BIRD-PASS Hammond’s Flycatcher Empidonax hammondii U D N
CLASS COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME ABUNDANCE TREND ORIGIN FED STATE ONHP BLM
BIRD-PASS Least Flycatcher Empidonax minimus O N
BIRD-PASS Dusky Flycatcher Empidonax oberholseri R I N
BIRD-PASS Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii C D N
BIRD-PASS Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris O N
BIRD-PASS Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris stringata O N U 3 BT
BIRD-PASS Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus O N
BIRD-PASS Brewer’s Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus C S N
BIRD-PASS Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas C S N
BIRD-PASS Cliff Swallow Hirundo pyrrhonota C S N
BIRD-PASS Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica C D N
BIRD-PASS Northern Oriole Icterus galbula O D N
BIRD-PASS Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens R S N
BIRD-PASS Varied Thrush Ixoreus naevius C N
BIRD-PASS Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis C N
BIRD-PASS Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor U N
BIRD-PASS Rosy Finch Leucosticte arctoa O N
BIRD-PASS White-winged Crossbill Loxia leucoptera O N
BIRD-PASS Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra C N
BIRD-PASS Swamp Sparrow Melospiza georgiana U N
BIRD-PASS Lincoln’s Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii U S N
BIRD-PASS Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia C N
BIRD-PASS Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos R N
BIRD-PASS Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia R N
BIRD-PASS Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater C D N
BIRD-PASS Ash-throated Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens O S N
BIRD-PASS Townsend’s Solitaire Myadestes townsendi U N
BIRD-PASS Clark’s Nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana O N
BIRD-PASS MacGillivray’s Warbler Oporornis tolmiei C D N
BIRD-PASS Sage Thrasher Oreoscoptes montanus O I N
BIRD-PASS Northern Parula Parula americana O N
BIRD-PASS Lazuli Bunting Passerina amoena U N
BIRD-PASS Black-capped Chickadee Parus atricapillus C N
BIRD-PASS Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea O N
BIRD-PASS House Sparrow Passer domesticus C E
BIRD-PASS Mountain Chickadee Parus gambeli O N
BIRD-PASS Fox Sparrow Passerella iliaca C N
BIRD-PASS Chestnut-backed Chickadee Parus rufescens U N
BIRD-PASS Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis C S N
BIRD-PASS Gray Jay Perisoreus canadensis U N
BIRD-PASS Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus O N
BIRD-PASS Black-headed Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus C I N
BIRD-PASS Rufous-sided Towhee Pipilo erythrophtalmus C N
BIRD-PASS Western Tanager Piranga ludoviciana C D N
BIRD-PASS Black-billed Magpie Pica pica O N
BIRD-PASS Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis R N
BIRD-PASS Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus U S N U 3
CLASS COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME ABUNDANCE TREND ORIGIN FED STATE ONHP BLM
BIRD-PASS Purple Martin Progne subis U D N C 3 BS
BIRD-PASS Bushtit Psaltriparus minimus C N
BIRD-PASS Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula C S N
BIRD-PASS Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa C N
BIRD-PASS Bank Swallow Riparia riparia O S N U 3
BIRD-PASS Rock Wren Salpinctes obsoletus O N
BIRD-PASS Say’s Phoebe Sayornis saya O I N
BIRD-PASS Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis O N 3
BIRD-PASS American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla O N 4
BIRD-PASS White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis R N
BIRD-PASS Mountain Bluebird Sialia currucoides O D N BT
BIRD-PASS Western Bluebird Sialia mexicana U N V 4 BS
BIRD-PASS Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta canadensis C N
BIRD-PASS American Tree Sparrow Spizella arborea O N
BIRD-PASS Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina U D N
BIRD-PASS Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella pallida O N
BIRD-PASS Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis U S N
BIRD-PASS Western Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta U N
BIRD-PASS European Starling Sturnus vulgaris C S E
BIRD-PASS Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor C D N
BIRD-PASS Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta thalassina C S N
BIRD-PASS Bewicks’s Wren Thryomanes bewickii C N
BIRD-PASS House Wren Troglodytes aedon U S N
BIRD-PASS Winter Wren Troglodytes troglodytes C N
BIRD-PASS American Robin Turdus migratorius C D N
BIRD-PASS Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus O S N
BIRD-PASS Western Kingbird Tyrannus verticalis R S N
BIRD-PASS Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata C D N
BIRD-PASS Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina O N
BIRD-PASS Nashville Warbler Vermivora ruficapilla R S N
BIRD-PASS Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus C S N
BIRD-PASS Hutton’s Vireo Vireo huttoni C N
BIRD-PASS Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus O D N
BIRD-PASS Solitary Vireo Vireo solitarius U S N
BIRD-PASS Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina O N
BIRD-PASS Wilson’s Warbler Wilsonia pusilla C N
BIRD-PASS Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus O S N
BIRD-PASS White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis R N
BIRD-PASS Golden-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla C N
BIRD-PASS White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys C D N
BIRD-PASS Harris’ Sparrow Zonotrichia querula R N
BIRD-PELE Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus C N
BIRD-PICI Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus C N
BIRD-PICI Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus U N V 4 BS
BIRD-PICI Lewis’ Woodpecker Melanerpes lewis X N C 3 BS
BIRD-PICI White-headed Woodpecker Picoides albolarvatus O N C 3
CLASS COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME ABUNDANCE TREND ORIGIN FED STATE ONHP BLM
BIRD-PICI Black-backed Woodpecker Picoides arcticus N C 4 BS
BIRD-PICI Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens U N
BIRD-PICI Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides tridactylus N C 4 BS
BIRD-PICI Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus U N
BIRD-PICI Red-breasted Sapsucker Sphyrapicus ruber U N
BIRD-PICI Williamson’s Sapsucker Sphyrapicus thyroideus N V 4 BS
BIRD-PICI Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius N
BIRD-PODI Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis U N
BIRD-PODI Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps C N
BIRD-STRI Northern Saw-whet Owl Aegolius acadicus C N BT
BIRD-STRI Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus U S N
BIRD-STRI Long-eared Owl Asio otus O N
BIRD-STRI Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus C N
BIRD-STRI Northern Pygmy Owl Glaucidium gnoma U N U 3 BT
BIRD-STRI Flammulated Owl Otis flammeolus N
BIRD-STRI Western Screech-owl Otis kennicottii U N
BIRD-STRI Great Gray Owl Strix nebulosa N
BIRD-STRI Northern Spotted Owl Strix occidentalis U N T T 1 FL
BIRD-STRI Barred Owl Strix varia R I E
BIRD-STRI Barn Owl Tyto alba U N
MAMMAL Mountain Beaver Aplodontia rufa C N
MAMMAL Red Tree Vole Arborimus longicaudus U N S&M
MAMMAL Coyote Canis latrans C N
MAMMAL Gray Wolf Canis lupus X N E E 2 FL
MAMMAL Beaver Castor canadensis C N
MAMMAL Elk Cervus elaphus C N
MAMMAL Western Red-backed Vole Clethrionomys californicus C N
MAMMAL Opossum Didelphis virginianus C I E
MAMMAL Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus C N
MAMMAL Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum U N
MAMMAL Townsend Chipmunk Eutamias townsendi C N
MAMMAL Feral House Cat Felis catus C E
MAMMAL Mountain Lion Felis concolor U N
MAMMAL Northern Flying Squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus U N
MAMMAL Wolverine Gulo gulo X N C2 T 2 BS
MAMMAL Red Bat Lasiurus borealis N
MAMMAL Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus U N
MAMMAL Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans U N S&M
MAMMAL Snowshoe Hare Lepus americanus U N
MAMMAL River Otter Lutra canadensis C N
MAMMAL Bobcat Lynx rufus C N
MAMMAL Pine Marten Martes americana R D N C 3 BS
MAMMAL Fisher Martes pennanti R N C2 C 2 BS
MAMMAL Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis U N
MAMMAL Long-tailed Vole Microtis longicaudus U N
MAMMAL Creeping Vole Microtis oregoni C N
CLASS COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME ABUNDANCE TREND ORIGIN FED STATE ONHP BLM
MAMMAL Townsend’s Vole Microtus townsendii C N
MAMMAL Short-tailed Weasel (Ermine) Mustela erminea C N
MAMMAL Long-tailed Weasel Mustela frenata U N
MAMMAL House Mouse Mus musculus C E
MAMMAL Mink Mustela vison C N
MAMMAL California Bat Myotis californicus C N
MAMMAL Nutria Myocastor coypus U E
MAMMAL Long-eared Bat Myotis evotis C N S&M
MAMMAL Little Brown Bat Myotis lucifugus C N
MAMMAL Fringed Myotis Myotis thysanodes R N S&M V 1 BS
MAMMAL Long-legged Bat Myotis volans U N S&M
MAMMAL Yuma Bat Myotis yumanensis U N
MAMMAL Bushy-tailed Woodrat Neotoma cinerea C N
MAMMAL Shrew-Mole Neurotrichus gibbsii C N
MAMMAL Black-tailed Deer Odocoileus hemionus C N
MAMMAL Columbian White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus leucurus N E E 1 FL
MAMMAL Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus U N
MAMMAL Deer Mouse Peromyscus maniculatus C N
MAMMAL White-footed Vole Phenacomys albipes R N C2 U 3 BS
MAMMAL Townsend’s Big-eared Bat Plecotus townsendii R D N C2 C 2 BS
MAMMAL Raccoon Procyon lotor C N
MAMMAL Norway Rat Rattus norvegicus C E
MAMMAL Black Rat Rattus rattus U E
MAMMAL Western Gray Squirrel Sciurus griseus N
MAMMAL Coast Mole Scapanus orarius C N
MAMMAL Townsend Mole Scapanus townsendii C N
MAMMAL Marsh Shrew Sorex bendirei C N
MAMMAL Dusky Shrew Sorex obscurus U N
MAMMAL Northern Water Shrew Sorex palustris N
MAMMAL Trowbridge’s Shrew Sorex trowbridgii C N
MAMMAL Vagrant Shrew Sorex vagrans C N
MAMMAL Beechey Ground Squirrel Spermophilus beecheyi C N
MAMMAL Western Spotted Skunk Spilogale gracilis U N
MAMMAL Brush Rabbit Sylvilagus bachmani C N
MAMMAL Douglas’ Squirrel Tamiascirius douglasii C N
MAMMAL Mazama Pocket Gopher Thomomys mazama C N
MAMMAL Black Bear Ursus americanus C N
MAMMAL Grizzly Bear Ursus arctos X N T 1 FL
MAMMAL Gray Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus U N
MAMMAL Red Fox Vulpes vulpes U N
MAMMAL Pacific Jumping Mouse Zapus trinotatus C N
Survey and Manage: The standards and guidelines require land managers to take certain actions relative to rare species of plants and animals, particularly amphibians, bryophytes, lichens, mollusks, vascular plants, fungi, and arthropods. These include: (1) manage known sites of rare organisms; (2) beginning fiscal year 1997, survey for the presence of rare organisms prior to ground-disturbing activities; (3) conduct surveys to identify locations and habitats of rare species; and (4) conduct general regional surveys for rare species.
For many species and taxonomic groups, adequate survey techniques may not exist. The standards and guidelines provide an implementation strategy that includes a time line for developing protocols for the surveys and conducting the necessary survey work.
Survey and Manage Fungi Potentially Found in the East Fork Nehalem Watershed
|ASSOCIATED SPECIES||SPECIES CATEGORY|
|1. Aleuria Rhenana||well developed forest litter||conifer||rare cup fungi|
|2. Aleurodiscus farlowii||on wood, humus, litter, stumps or dead wood||rare resupinates and polypore|
|3. Asterophora lycoperdoides||fruit bodies of other fungi||late successional||parasitic fungi|
|4. Asterophora parasitica||fruit bodies of other fungi||later successional||parasitic fungi|
|5. Baeospora myriadophylla||litter, humus, or dead wood||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|6. Catathelasma ventricosa||habitat not completely known||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|7. Choiromyces venosus||mixed conifer, hardwood||rare truffles|
|8. Cladonia norvegica||unknown||additional lichen species|
|9. Clavariadelphus sp.||Cool/cold moist well-developed litter layer||late successional||hardwood or conifer||club coral fungi|
|10. lavicorona avelianea||moist with coarse woody debris & large diameter partially decayed logs||late successional||coal fungi|
|11. Clavulina cinerea||well developed litter layer||late successional||branched coral fungi|
|12. Clavulina cristata||well developed litter layer||late successional||branched coral fungi|
|13. Clavulina ornatipes||well developed litter layer||late successional||branched coral fungi|
|14. Clitocbe senills||moist, with a deep humus and litter layer||late successional||conifers||rare gilled mushrooms|
|15. Clitocybe subditopoda||moist, with a deep humus and litter layer||late successional||rare gilled mushrooms|
|16. Collybia bakerensis||recently fallen stumps and logs||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|17. Collybia racemosa||fruit bodies of other fungi||late successional||parasitic fungi|
|18. Cordyceps capitata||fruit bodies of other fungi||late successional||parasitic fungi|
|19. Cordyceps ophioglossoides||fruit bodies of other fungi||late successional||parasitic fungi|
|20. Cortinarius azureus||details of habitat requirements not completely known||late successional||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|21. Cortinarius boulderensis||details of habitat requirements not completely known||late successional||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|22. Cortinarius canabarba||diverse forest with heavy litter/humus layer and associated coarse woody debris||late successional||conifer||rare gilled mushrooms|
|23. Cortinarius cyanites||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|24. Cortinarius magnivelatus||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|25. Cortinarius olympianus||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|26. Cortinarius rainierensis||diverse forest with heavy litter/humus layer and associated coarse woody debris||late successional||conifer||rare gilled mushrooms|
|27. Cortinarius spilomius||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|28. Cortinarius tabularis||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|29. Cortinarius valgus||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|30. Cortinarius variipes||diverse forest with heavy litter/humus layer and associated coarse woody debris||late successional||conifers||rare gilled mushrooms|
|31. Cudonia monticola||duff||mature||conifer||rare resupinates and polypore|
|32. Cyphellostereum laeve||moist; specific details of ecology lacking||mosses||moss dwelling mushrooms|
|33. Democybe humboldtensis||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|34. Dendriscocaulon intricatulum||wet, boreal riparian||late successional||conifers||rare nitrogen-fixing lichens|
|35. Fayodia gracilipes (rainierensis)||litter, humus or dead wood||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|36. Galerina atkinsoniana||moist; specific details of ecology lacking||mosses||moss dwelling mushrooms|
|37. Galenina cerina||moist; specific details of ecology lacking||mosses||moss swelling mushrooms|
|38. Galerina heterocystis||moist; specific details of ecology lacking||mosses||moss dwelling mushrooms|
|39. Galerina sphagnicola||moist; specific details of ecology lacking||mosses||moss dwelling mushrooms|
|40. Galerina vittaeformis||moist; specific details of ecology lacking||mosses||moss dwelling mushrooms|
|41. Gastroboletus imbellus||pinaceae||rareboletes|
|42. Gymnomyces sp. Nov. #Trappe 4703, 5576||ABPR||undescribed fungal taxa|
|43. Gymnopilus puntifolius||well decayed stumps and logs||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|44. Gyromitra californica||decaying matter in soil & rotten wood||mature||rare resupinates and polypore|
|45. Gyromitra esculenta||rotten wood||Second Growth||rare resupinates and polypore|
|46. Gyromitra infula||decaying matter in soil & rotten wood||mature||rare resupinates and polypore|
|47. Gyromitra melaleucoides||decaying matter in soil & rotten wood||rare resupinates and polypore|
|48. Gyromitra montana (syn. g. glgas)||decaying matter in soil & rotten wood||mature||rare resupinates and polypore|
|49. Hebeloma olympiana||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|50. Helvella compressa||riparian or wet||late successional||rare cup fungi|
|51. Helvella crassitunicata||riparian or wet||late successional||rare cup fungi|
|52. Helvella elastica||riparian or wet||late successional||rare cup fungi|
|53. Helvella maculata||riparian or wet||late successional||rare cup fungi|
|54. Heterodermia sitchensis||unknown||additional lichen species|
|55. Hydnum repandum||late successional||conifer & hardwood||tooth fungi|
|56. Hydnum umbillcatum||late successional||conifers & hardwoods||tooth fungi|
|57. Hygomnia vitiata||unknown||additional lichen species|
|58. Hygrophorus caeruleus||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|59. Hygrophorus karstenii||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|60. Hygrophorus vernalis||details of habitat requirements not completely known||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|61. Hypogymnia duplicata||wet, foggy, windy coast & maritime sites||conifers||rare leafy (arboreal) lichens|
|62. Hypomyces luteovirens||fruit bodies of other fungi||late successional||parasitic fungi|
|63. Lobaria hallii||wet, foggy forest on large diam. Hardwoods and on shrubs||late successional||conifers||rare nitrogen-fixing lichen|
|64. Marasmius applanatipes||litter humus, or dead wood||late successional||conifers||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|65. Mycena hudsoniana||litter, humus or dead wood||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|66. Mycene lilacifolia||rotting stumps and logs||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|67. Mycena marginella||rotting stumps or logs||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|68. Mycena monticola||litter, humus or dead wood||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|69. Mycena overholtsii||rooting stumps or logs||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|70. Mycena quinaultensis||litter, humus or dead wood||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|71. Mycena tenax||litter, humus or dead wood||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|72. Mythicomyces corneipes||litter, humus or dead wood||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|73. Neolenthinus kauffmanii||occurs only on logs or stumps of PISI||late successional||PISI||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|74. Otidea leporina||duff in moist-wet forest||late successional||conifer||rare resupinates and polypore|
|75. Otidea onotica||duff in moist-wet forest||late successional||conifer||rare resupinates and polypore|
|76. Otidea smithii||duff in moist-wet forest||late successional||conifer||rare resupinates and polypore|
|77. Pannaria rubiginosa||basses of trees||mature||rare nitrogen-fixing lichens|
|78. Phellodon atratum||late successional||conifers and hardwoods||tooth fungi|
|79. Phaeocollybia ssp||phaeocollybia|
|80. Phlogoitis helvelloides||riparian zones, upper headwater seeps, & intermittent streams with large woody debris||conifer||jelly mushroom|
|81. Pholiota albiveiata||litter, humus or dead wood||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|82. Phytoconis ericetorum||dead, decoriticated wood & large woody debris in well lit forest with altern. High/low moisture||botryodina (alga)||mushroom lichen|
|83. Podostroma alutaceum||partly decayed wood fragments in duff||mature||conifer or mixed conifer||rare resupinate and polypore|
|84. Pseudaleuria quinaultiana||wet||late successional||conifer||rare cup fungi|
|85. Rhodocybe nitida||moist, with a deep humus and litter layer||late successional||rare gilled mushrooms|
|86. Rickenella setipes||moist; specific details of ecology lacking||late successional||mosses||moss dwelling mushrooms|
|87. Russula mustelina||details of habitat requirements not completely known||late successional||uncommon gilled mushrooms|
|88. Sarcodon fuscoindicum||conifers & hardwoods||tooth fungi|
|89. Sarcodon imbricatus||conifers & hardwoods||tooth fungi|
|90. Sparassis crispa||large trees||late successional||PSME||cauliflower mushrooms|
|91. Spathularia flavida||duff layer||mature||conifer||rare resupinate and polypore|
|92. Stagnicola perplexa||litter, humus, or dead wood||late successional||conifer||uncommon gilled mushroom|
|93. Tricholoa venenatum||diverse forests with heavy humus layer||later successional||conifers||rare gilled mushroom|
BLM Special Status Plant Species Potentially Found in the East Fork Nehalem Watershed
Agrostis howellii Howell’s Bentgrass
Bolandra oregana Oregon Bolandra
Cardamine pattersonii Bittercress
Cimicifuga elata Tall Bugbane
Filipendula occidentalis Queen-of-the-Forest
Howellia aquatilis Howellia
Montia howellii Howell’s Montia
Saxifraga hitchcockiana Saxifrage
Sullivantia oregana Oregon Sullivantia
Carex comosa Bristly sedge
Carex livida Pale Sedge
Carex pluriflora Many-Flowered Sedge
Carex retrorsa Retrorse Sedge
Carex macrochaeta Long-Awned Sedge
Dryopteris filix-mas Male Fern
Erigeron peregrinus Wandering Daisy
Eriophorum chamissonis Russet Cotton Grass
Fritillaria camschatcensis Indian Rice
Geum triflorum Western Red Avens
Lewisia columbiana Rosy Lewisia
Limonium californicum Western Marsh-Rosemary
Lycopodiella inundata Bog Club-Moss
Senecio flettii Flett’s Groundsel
Wolffia columbiana Columbia Water-Meal
Calypogeia sphagnicola Liverwort
Encalypta brevipes Moss
Herbertus sakuraii Liverwort
Iwatsukiella leucotricha Moss
Polytrichum strictum Moss
Bryoria bicolor Lichen
Bryoria subcana Lichen
Sticta arctica Lichen
Bergia texana Bergia
Carex brevicaulis Short-stemmed Sedge
Carex macrocephala Bighead Sedge
Castilleja ambigua Johnny-nip
Cyperus schweinitzii Schweinitz Cyperus
Elodea nuttallii Nuttall’s Waterweed
Euonymus occidentalis Western Wahoo
Heteranthera dubia Water Star-grass
Hieracium canadense Canadian Hawkweed
Juncus kelloggii Kellogg’s Dwarf Rush
Lilaea scilloides Flowering Quillwort
Lloydia serotina Alp Lily
Montia diffusa Branching Montia
Myrica gale Sweet Gale
Najas guadalupensis Water Nymph
Parvisedum pumilum Mock Stone-crop
Poa laxiflora Loose-Flowered Bluegrass
Poa marcida Weak Bluegrass
Polygonum punctatum Dotted Smartweed
Rhinanthus crista-galli Yellow Rattle
Samolus parviflorus Water Pimpernel
Scirpus cyperinus Woolgrass
Synthyris schizantha Fringed Synthyris
Triglochin striata Arrow Grass
Vaccinium oxycoccos Bog Cranberry
Verbena hastata Blue Verbena
Barbilophozia barbata Liverwort
Barbilophozia lycopodioides Liverwort
Diplophyllum plicatum Liverwort
Herbertus aduncus Liverwort
Plagiochila semidecurrens Liverwort
Radula brunnea Liverwort
Rhytidium rugosum Moss
Tritomaria quinquedentata Liverwort
Pilophorus nigricaulis Lichen
Hypogymnia duplicata Lichen
BLM lands within East Fork Nehalem watershed with public access:
Section 31, Township 5 North, Range 3 West
Section 33, Township 5 North, Range 3 West
Section 3, Township 4 North, Range 3 West
Section 5, Township 4 North, Range 3 West
Section 7, Township 4 North, Range 3 West
Section 15, Township 4 North, Range 3 West
Section 17, Township 4 North, Range 3 West
Section 21, Township 4 North, Range 3 West
Section 27, Township 4 North, Range 3 West
Section 29, Township 4 North, Range 3 West
Section 33, Township 4 North, Range 3 West
BLM lands within the East Fork Nehalem watershed without public access:
Section 19, Township 4 North, Range 3 West
Two or more species of live trees with a wide range of sizes and ages. Eight or more large (>32 inches DBH) or old (>200 years) Douglas-fir trees per acre; however, most stands have 15 to 45 trees per acre, depending on stand age and history. Twelve or more associated shade-tolerant species per acre, such as western hemlock or western redcedar, that are at least 16 inches DBH. More than 15 tons of down logs per acre, including 4 pieces per acre more than 24 inches in diameter and greater than 50 feet long. Four or more conifer snags per acre that are greater than 20 inches in diameter and more than 15 feet. Other features include a dense, multiple-layered canopy; decadence in dominant live trees as evidenced by broken or multiple tops and decay; and shade-tolerant climax species, such as western hemlock or western redcedar, in canopy gaps created through the death of the dominant Douglas-firs (Franklin et al. 1986)
Agee, J.K., and M.H. Huff. 1987. Fuel succession in a western hemlock/ Douglas-fir forest. Can J. For. Res. 17:697-704.
Brown, E. Reade. 1985. Management of Wildlife and Fish Habitats in Forests of Western Oregon and Washington. USDA, Forest Service. Portland, Oregon. 2 vols. 635 pp.
Carey, Andrew B. 1991. The Biology of Arboreal Rodents in Douglas-fir Forests. PNW-GTR-276. USDA, U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Portland, Oregon.
Franklin, J.F., and C.T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-8. 417 p.
Franklin, J.F., F. Hall, W. Laudenslayer, C. Maser, J Nunan, J. Poppino, C.J. Ralph, and T. Spies. 1986. Interim definitions for old-growth Douglas-fir and mixed conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest and California. USDA For. Serv. Res. Note PNW-447. 7 p.
Goheen D.J., and E.M. Goheen. 1988. Forest pest evaluation of the Ball Bearing Hill-High Heaven unit, Yamhill Resource Area, Salem District, Bureau of Land Management. USDA For. Serv., For. Pest Manage. R6-88-02. PNW Region, Portland, OR. 9 p.
Hadfield, J.S. 1985. Laminated root rot, a guide for reducing and preventing losses in Oregon and Washington forests. USDA For. Serv., For. Pest Manage. PNW Region, Portland, OR. 13 p.
Hadfield, J.S., D.J. Goheen, G.M. Filip, C.L. Schmitt, and R.D. Harvey. 1986. Root diseases in Oregon and Washington conifers. USDA For. Serv., For. Pest Manage. R6-FPM-250-86. PNW Region, Portland, OR. 27 p.
Harrington, C.A., J.C. Zasada, and E.A. Allen. 1994. Biology of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). P. 3-22 in The Biology and Management of Red Alder, Hibbs, D.E., DeBell, D.S., and Tarrant, R.F. (eds.). Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.
Hemstrom, M.A., and S.E. Logan. 1986. Plant association and management guide-Siuslaw National Forest. USDA For. Serv. R6-Ecol 220-1986a. PNW Region, Portland, OR. 121 p.
Hostetler, B.B., and D.W. Ross. 1996. Generation of coarse woody debris and guidelines for reducing the risk of adverse impacts by Douglas-fir beetle. Unpublished paper. USDA For. Serv. Westside For. Insect and Disease Tech. Cntr., Troutdale, Oregon. 5 p.
Nelson, E.E., and T. Hartman. 1975. Estimating spread of Poria weirii in a high-elevation mixed-conifer stand. J. For. 73:141-142.
Nelson, E.E., N.E. Martin, and R.E. Williams. 1981. Laminated root rot of western conifers. USDA For. Serv. For. Disease and Insect Leafl. 159. 6 p.
ODFW. 1994. Columbia Region Proposed Management Objectives for Elk, Oregon Departmant of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, Oregon.
Oliver, C.D., and B.C. Larson. 1990. Forest stand dynamics. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York. 467 p.
Spies, T.A., J.F. Franklin, and T.B. 1988. Coarse woody debris in Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon and Washington. Ecology 69:1689-1702.
Teensma, P.D.A., Rienstra, J.T., and M.A. Yeiter. 1991. Preliminary reconstruction and analysis of change in forest stand age classes of the Oregon Coast Range from 1850 to 1940. USDI Bur. Land Manage. Tech. Note T/N OR-9. 9 p.
Thies, W.G., and R.N. Sturrock. 1995. Laminated root rot in western North America. USDA For. Serv. PNW Res. Sta. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-349. Portland, Oregon. 32 p.
Thies, W.G. 1984. Laminated root rot: The quest for control. J. For. 82:345-356.
USDA, USDI. 1994. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on Management of Habitat of Late-successional and Old-growth Forest Related Species Within the Range of the Northern Spotted Owl, appendix J2. 476 pp.
USDI, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. The Draft Recovery Plan For The Northern Spotted Owl. USDI. 662 pp.
USDI, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1986. The Pacific States Bald Eagle Recovery Plan. USDI, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Portland, Oregon. 160 pp.
Worthington, N.P., R.H. Ruth, and E.E. Matson. 1962. Red alder: its management and utilization. USDA For. Serv., Misc. Publ. 881.
LIST OF ACRONYMS
ACS…………………………………Aquatic Conservation Strategy (from ROD)
BLM………………………………..Bureau of Land Management
BMP………………………………..Best Management Practice
CWD……………………………….Coarse Woody Debris
DBH………………………………..Diameter Breast Height
DEQ………………………………..Department of Environmental Quality (State of Oregon)
ESA…………………………………Endangered Species Act
FEMAT……………………………Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team
GFMA……………………………..General Forest Management Area
GTR………………………………..General Technical Report
LSR…………………………………Late Successional Reserve
NFP…………………………………Northwest Forest Plan (Record of Decision – for Amendments to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents Within the Range of the Northern Spotted Owl)
NMFS………………………………National Marine Fisheries Service
ODA………………………………..Oregon Department of Agriculture
ODF…………………………………Oregon Department of Forestry
ODFW……………………………..Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife
OHV………………………………..Off Highway Vehicle
OSU…………………………………Oregon State University
R&PPA…………………………….Recreation and Public Purposes Act
ROD………………………………..Record of Decision (Salem District)
RMP………………………………..Resource Management Plan (Salem District)
S&M………………………………..Survey and Manage
T&E…………………………………Threatened and Endangered
USDA………………………………United States Department of Agriculture
USDI……………………………….United States Department of Interior
USFWS……………………………United States Fish and Wildlife Service
WRD……………………………….Water Resources Division (Oregon DEQ)